Biology H-9

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Substitution(Mutations)

Point mutation because 1 base has been changed
THE FAT CAT ATE
THE FIT CAT ATE

Insertion(Mutations)

Frame shift; really bad
THE FATY CAT ATE
THE FAT YCA TAT

Deletion(Mutations)

Frame shift; really bad
THE FA CAT ATE
THE FAC ATA TET

Inversion(Chromosomal Mutations)

ABC.DEF
AED.CBF

Deletion(Chromosomal Mutations)

ABC.DEF
AC.DEF

Duplication(Chromosomal Mutations)

ABC.DEF
ABBC.DEF

Translation(Protein Synthesis)

mRNA>>protein
each 3 letters(codon) translates into an amino acid, then to a protein

Transcription(Protein Synthesis)

DNA>>mRNA
AACCGA
UUGGCU
occurs when DNA is expressed

Replication(Protein Synthesis)

DNA>>DNA
TTGGCT
AACCGA
occurs in S-phase

codon

3 letters of mRNA

4 bases of DNA

A-adenine
G-Guanine
T-Thymine
C-Cytosine

Which gender goes with which chromosome pair in sex linked genes?

XX=girl
XY=boy(the y doesn't get a gene)

Where does mRNA go after leaving the nucleus?

To the ribosome

GMO

Genetically modified organism

3 types of RNA

mRNA
tRNA
rRNA

How do you cut DNA?

EcoRI finds CTTAAG or GAATTC and cuts between the G and A

Selective Breeding

Choosing traits in agriculture that we want

rRNA

ribosomal-RNA in ribosome

tRNA

transfer-carries amino acids to ribosomes

mRNA

messenger-takes genetic code from nucleus to cytoplasm(ribosome)

Translocation(Chromosomal Mutations)

ABC.DEF
ABC.JKL
GH.IDEF

Recombinant DNA

DNA from more than one organism species joined in the lab

Transgenicorganism

DNA in organism from more than one species

Define a gene?

a part of a DNA that codes for a single person

Dependent Variable

Responding variable

Independent Variable

Manipulated variable

Why are the F1s purple when the P1s are green?

The dad was homozygous/dominant and P1 was homozygous/recessive so the baby had a 100% chance of being purple

Characteristics of Life

CO-cellular organization
R-reproduction
D-DNA
G-growth and development
E-evolution
R-respond to environment
M-metabolism
S-stable and internal balance

Hypothesis

A testable explanation for a question or problem related to an observation

Which organism is the smallest on this list?
E Coli bacterium
Coffee bean
Hepatitis virus
Amoeba

Hepatitus virus

Scientists discovered a fossil of what may have once been alive, from a Mars rock. It looks like a strand of connected circles. Which one of the eight characteristics of life did it appear to exhibit?

Cellular Orginization

A raw potato releases oxygen gas when a special solution (hydrogen peroxide) is added. A baked potato does not. Which of the eight characteristics of life appears to be demonstrated in the RAW potato from THIS activity?

Metabolism

In pond water under a classroom light microscope, what characteristic of life do you observe directly?

Response to environment

If you wanted to create a culture of microorganisms to observe under a microscope, what would be the best to add if you start off with a container of pure water?

Dusty hay from lawn clippings

Bob wants to do an experiment to test a new plant fertilizer that guarantees to double the growth rate for seedlings. he sows three sets of seedlings with similar soil and light conditions. Set A gets pure water. Set B gets water with fertilizer and Set C gets no water at all. The control is?

Set A

When using a microscope you first...

find a specimen on the slide and focus using low power, then go to high power

Observation is important in laboratory science today because...

Discoveries are still possible all around us if we observe carefully

A controlled experiment allows the researcher to isolate and test

a single variable

All forms of life on Earth

absorb and use materials

The goal of science is to

learn the cause of events in nature

The purpose if an experiment is to

test a hypothesis

To measure a small volume of liquid, scientists use units called

milliliters mL

True or False. We all originated from stardust before life began.

True

Inference

An educated guess

Theory

A unified explanation for a broad range of experiments

Polymer

Large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together

Nucleus

Center of an atom

Polar Molecule

Molecule with unequal distribution of charge

Solution

Mixture in which one substance is distributed evenly in another

Enzyme

Protein that speeds up a chemical reaction

How many different allele combinations would be found in the gametes produced by a pea plant whose genotype was RrYY?

2

Situations such as a pink flower in which one allele for a gene, white flower, is exhibited in a blended form with another allele, red flower, for that gene are called

incomplete dominance

A cross of a black chicken(BB) and a white chicken (WW) produces all speckled offspring (BBWW). This type of inheritance is known as

codominance

Variation in human skin color is an example of diet, environment, and...

polygenic traits

Dihybrid

A cross involving two different traits

Fertilization

The uniting of the male and female gametes

Homozygous

The alleles present for a trait are the same

Heredity

The passing of characteristics from parents to offspring

When during the cell cycle are chromosomes visible?

Only during cell division

Which event occurs during interphase?

The cell grows

True or False. Interphase is usually the longest phase

True

Which of the following is a phase of mitosis?
cytokinesis
interphase
prophase
S phase

Prophase

During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up along the middle of the dividing cell?

metaphase

What are the phases of mitosis in their proper sequence?

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

What is the role of the spindle during mitosis?

It helps separate the chromosomes

During normal mitotic cell division, a parent cell having four chromosomes will produce two daughter cells, each containing 2, 4, 8, or 16 chromosomes?

4

What is the purpose of mitosis?

Separating sister chromatids into identical daughter groups

In eukaryotes, DNA is located in the...

nucleus

DNA is copied during a process called

replication

During DNA replication, a DNA strand that has the bases CTAGGT produces a strand with the bases...

GATCCA

Unlike DNA, RNA contains what?

uracil

How many types of RNA are there?

3

During transcription, an RNA molecule is formed where?

inside the nucleus

How many codons are needed to specify three amino acids?

9

What happens during the process of translation?

The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins

Genes contain instructions for assembling what?

Proteins

Which type of RNA functions as a blueprint of the genetic code?

mRNA

True or False. The instructions for making some proteins are not specified by genes

False

A mutation that involves one nucleotide(base) is called a...

point mutation

Which of the following is not a (point) gene mutation?
substitution
insertion
deletion
substitution

substitution

If a specific kind of protein is not continually used by a cell, the gene for that protein is...

expressed differently or turned on and off at different times.

What does selective breeding produce?

Desired traits in offspring

What is the ultimate source of genetic variability?

Mutations

What is one function of gel electrophoresis (fingerprinting)?

Separating DNA fragments by size

The process of making changes in the DNA code of a single living organism is called what?

Genetic engineering

A DNA molecule produced by combining DNA from different species is known as what?

Recombinant DNA

On an electrophoresis gel, band B is closer to the positive end than band A. So...

Band B moved faster than band A

Which of the following contains all of the others inside it?
plasmid
transformed bacterium
foreign gene
recombinant DNA

transformed bacterium

A gene such as a fluorescent gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry plasmid (and the foreign DNA) from those that don't is called a...

genetic marker

What is an advantage of using transgenic bacteria to produce human proteins?

Transgenic bacteria can produce human proteins in large amounts inexpensively

To produce transgenic bacteria that makes insulin, what step did the scientist have to use first?

Use a restriction enzyme to cut out the insulin gene from human DNA

What kind of cell or cells were used to make Dolly?

body cell and egg cell

Linked genes are...

always on the same chromosome

How many chromosomes are found in a normal body cell karyotype

46

In a pedigree a circle represents what?

A female

Colorblindness is found in males more than females because?

The allele for colorblindness is recessive and located on the X chromosome

The purpose of gene therapy is to...

cure genetic disorders

The chromosome abnormality that occurs when one chromosome breaks off and is added to a different chromosome is called what?

nondisjunction

A factor that is necessary for the formation of a new species is...

reproductive isolation

The phenotypes for a typical polygenic trait can often be expressed as...

a bell-shaped curve

Modern sea star larvae resemble some primitive vertebrate larvae. This similarity may suggest that primitive vertebrates...

share a common ancestor with sea stars

Monkeys on two continents, although similar, show numerous genetic differences. What factor is probably most important in maintaining these differences?

geographic isolation

A change in the sequence of DNA is called

mutation

The two main sources of genetic variation are...

gene shuffling and mutations

Based on the adaptations Charles Darwin observed in finches and tortoises in the Galapagos, what did he wonder?

If all species living on different islands had once been members of the same species

What is a major concept included in Lamarck's theory of evolution?

Body structure can change according to the actions of the organism

The species of finches that Darwin found on the islands displayed different structural adaptations. What was one of the adaptations that Darwin noted?

The birds' different-shaped beaks

Lamarck's theory of evolution includes the concept that new organs in a species appear as a result of what?

The actions of organisms as they use or fail to use body structures

Why does the geographic isolation of two populations of a species tend to increase differences between their gene pool?

Because it prevents interbreeding between the populations

What is the type of genetic drift that follows the colonization of a new habitat by a small group of individuals?

The founder effect

What situation might develop in a population having some plants whose flowers open at midday and other plats whose flowers open late in the day?

Temporal isolation

In each generation, the wings of experimental fruit flies were clipped short for fifty generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal wings. This observation would tend to disprove which idea that evolution is based on?

Inheritance of acquired characteristics

What is one similarity between natural selection and genetic drift?

They both involve a change in a population's allele frequencies

Natural selection can be best defined as what?

The survival and reproduction of the organisms that are genetically best adapted to the environment

Homologous Structures

Structures that have a similar evolutionary origin and structure but are adapted for different purposes, such as a bat wing and a human arm

What book did Charles Darwin publish in 1859

On the Origin of Species

In a population of finches in which one group of birds has a short, parrot-like beak and another group has a long, narrow beak, what process has probably occurred?

disruptive selection

Overproduction

When a species creates more offspring than can survive

When individuals at only one end of a bell curve of phenotype frequencies have high fitness, the result is what?

directional selection

If an allele makes up one fourth of a population's alleles for a given trait, its relative frequency is what percent?

25%

A polygenic trait can have...

many possible genotypes, producing many possible phenotypes

Hawaiian honeycreepers are a group of birds with a similar body shape and size. However, they vary greatly in color and beak shape. Each species occupies its own niche and is adapted to the foods available in its niche. The evolution from a common ancestor to a variety of species is an example of what?

Divergent evolution

The flying squirrel of North America closely resembles the flying phalanger of Australia. They are similar in size and have long bushy tails and skin folds that allow then to glide through the air. The squirrel is a placental mammal, while the phalanger is a marsupial. These close resemblances, even though genetically and geographically separated by great distances, can best be explained by what?

convergent evolution

All the genes of all member of a particular population make up the population's what?

Gene pool

James Hutton's and Charles Lyell's work was important to Darwin because these scientists suggested what?

That Earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred

Vestigial Structures

remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species.

Convergent Evolution

When two totally different species look the same but are not related

Divergent Evolution

When two species look totally different but are related

In genetic drift, allele frequencies change because of what?

Chance

Geographical Isolation

The separation of populations by barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water

A species is a group of similar organisms that can do what?

Mate with each other and produce fertile offspring

What did Darwin infer from his observations of organisms in South America and the Galapagos Islands?

A small number of different plant and animal species had come to the Galapagos Islands from the mainland

According to Darwin's theory of natural selection, individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. Their survival is due to what?

The possession of inherited adaptations that maximize fitness

If a mutation introduces a new skin color in a lizard population, which factor might determine whether the frequency of the new allele will increase?

whether the mutation makes some lizards more fit for their environment than other lizards

While looking for fossils on an eroded hillside, you discover fossil coral and fish in one layer. In a layer just above, you find the fossil imprint of a fern frond and some fossil moss. Assuming the rock has not been disturbed, what is the most probable conclusion?

A sea has been replaced by land in ancient times

Four groups of organic compounds

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Nucleic Acids
Proteins

Carbohydrates

made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; living things use this as their main source of energy; Ex: starches and sugars

Lipids

made up of mostly carbon and hydrogen atoms; living things use this to store energy; Ex: fats, oils, and waxes

Nucleic Acids

made up of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon , and phosphorus; they store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information; Ex: DNA, RNA

Proteins

made up of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; they are polymers of molecules called amino acids; some control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes; some are used to form bones and muscles; others transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight diseases

Catalyst

a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction Ex: enzymes

Ribosomes

small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm and on the Rough ER; assemble proteins

Rough ER

where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cells

Smooth ER

is involved in the making of lipids

Golgi

modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell

Mitochondria

organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use

Chloroplast

organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy

Cytoskeleton

helps the cell to maintain it's shape, also involved in movement

Stages of Cells

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

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