The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent info from the environment
The process of organizing/interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
Top Down Processing
Info processing guided by higher-level mental processes, like when we construct.
Bottom Up Processing
Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information.
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.
The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli: such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
Signal Detection Theory
Predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation.
Messages that get past the sensory threshold to the lower part of the brain, but then remain locked in the unconscious.
The activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations
Difference Threshold/Just Noticeable Difference
The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time.
The diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
The conversion of one form of energy into another.
The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light
Small adjustable opening that helps focus
colored muscle which further adjusts light intake
Behind the pupil, focuses images onto retina
The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, contains receptor rods and cones.
The curving process that is done by focusing the image on the retina.
Detect black, white, gray
Near center of retina, allow us to see color
Nerve that carries information to the brain
spot on the retina where the optic nerve enters
Central focal point in retina around which the eye's cones cluster.
step by step processing
Processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously- the brain's natural mode of info processing for many functions
Trichromatic (Young Helmholtz)
The theory that the retina contains three different color receptors- one most sensitive to red, green, blue - which can produce the perception of any color.
Opponent Process Color Theory
Theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision.
A tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency.
Strength of sound waves
The complexity of sound
Three bones in ear
the middle ear utilizes these to transmit the eardrum's vibrations to the cochlea.
The incoming vibrations cause this membrane to vibrate, which josts the fluid that fills the tube.
Hair cells (cilia)
Line the surface of the basilar membrane, triggers impulses in the adjacent nerve cells
Theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated.
Theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, enabling us to sense its pitch.
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves.
Conduction Hearing Loss
Hearling loss causes by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts.
The sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance.
Gate Control Theory
Theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain.
An organized whole, our tendency to integrate pieces of info into meaningful wholes
The organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings.
We fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object.
Grouping nearby figures together.
Grouping similar objects (like circles and triangles) together
The ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional; allows us to judge distance.
A lab device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
An illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on/off in quick succession.
shape, size, lightness
A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input