Organic Chemistry

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Vocabulary terms associated with organic chemistry

organic chemistry

study of compounds found in living organisms that conatin both carbon and hydrogen

4 organic macromolecules

carbohydrate, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids

carbon has ____ valence electrons

four

transports materials into and out of the cell

proteins

carries the instructions to build proteins

Nucleic Acids

carbohydrate

a macromolecule that provides energy and is made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio

monosaccharide

single sugar

polysaccharide

several single sugars that are joined together (complex carbohydrate)

lipid

macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes

saturated fats

have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms; NO carbon-carbon double bonds

unsaturated fats

contain atlest one carbon-carbon double bond; liquid at room temperature

phospholipid

a main component of the cell membrane

steroids

lipids that act as chemical messengers

essential fatty acids

lipids that are needed by the body and are acquired from the food we eat

amino acids

monomers or building blocks of proteins

R group

the part of the amino acid that varies

proteins

macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; serve as structural components, enzymes, and antibodies

nucleic Acids

macromolecules that contain, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous

deoxyribonucleic Acid

contains the sugar deoxyribose and stores genetic information

ribonucleic Acid

contains the sugar ribose and carries out protein synthesis

four nitrogen bases in DNA

adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine

four nitrogen bases in RNA

adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil

monomer of nucleic acids

nucleotides

parts of a nucleotide

5 carbon sugar, nitrogen base, and a phophate group

glycerol and fatty acids

lipids

glucose

single sugar produced during photosynthesis

glycogen

animal starch that is stored in the liver

cellulose

starch that is stored in the cell wall of plants

inorganic compounds

compounds that DO NOT contain carbon and hydrogen

What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?

Saturated fats have NO carbon-carbon double bonds and unsaturated fats have al least one.

What type of bonds do Organic Compounds contain?

Covalent bonds

Why is Carbon able to interact with so many elements?

It has 4 valence electrons.

What is the basic unit (monomer) of cellulose and glycogen?

monosaccharides

What is produced during photosynthesis?

glucose (carbohydrate)

What two macromolecules help store energy?

carbohydrates and lipids

main componenet of the cell membrane

lipids

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