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basic trust versus mistrust

in Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of infancy which is resolved positively if the balance of care, especially during feeding, is sympathetic and loving

autonomy versus shame and doubt

in Erikson's theory, the conflict of toddlerhood is resolved favorably when parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices

basic emotions

happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, saddness, and disgust are universal in humans and other primates and can be directly inferred from similar facial expressions in diverse cultures

social smile

a broad smile that is evoked by the human face and emerges between 6 and 10 weeks

stranger anxiety

the infant's expression of fear in response to unfamiliar adults; appears in many babies after 6 months of age

secure base

infants' use of the familiar caregiver as a point from which to explore the environment and return for emotional support

emotional contagion

a fairly automatic process by which infants detect others' emotions

self-conscious emotions

emotions that involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self; examples are shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, and pride

emotional self-regulation

strategies for adjusting our emotional state to a comfortable level of intesnity so we can accomplish our goals


early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation

easy child

a child whose temperament is such that he or she quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences

difficult child

a child whose temperament is such that he or she is irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely

slow-to-warm-up child

a child whose temperament is such that he or she is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly when faced with new experiences

effortful control

the capacity to voluntarily suprress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response

inhibited child

a child whose temperament is such that he or she reacts negatively to and withdraws from novel stimuli

uninhibited child

a child whose temperament is such that he or she displays positive emotion to and approaches a novel stimuli

goodness-of-fit model

an effective match between child-rearing practices and a child's temperament, leading to favorable adjustment


the strong affectionate tie we have with special people in our lives that leads us to feel pleasure when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress

ethological theory of attachment

theory that recognizes the infant's emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival

separation anxiety

an infant's distressed reaction to the department of a familiar caregiver

internal working model

a set of expectations about the availability of attachment figures and their likelihood of providing support during times of stress; it becomes a vital part of personality, serving as a guide for all future close relationships

strange situation

a widely used laboratory procedure for assessing attachment quality between one and two years of age; it takes the baby through eight short episodes in which brief separations from and reunions with th eparent occur in an unfamiliar playroom

secure attachment

the quality of attachment characterizing infants who are distressed by parental separation and easily comforted by the parent when she or he returns

avoidant attachment

the quality of insecure attachment characterizing infants who are usually not distressed by parental separation and who avoid the parent when she or he returns

resistant attachment

the quality of insecure attachment characterizing infants who remain close to the parent before departure and display angry, resistive behavior when she or he returns

disorganized attachment

the quality of insecure attachment characterizing infants who respond in a confused, contradictory fasion when reunited wiht the parent

sensitive caregiving

caregiving involving prompt, consistent, and appropriate responds to infant signals

self recognition

identification of the self as a phsyically unique being


the ability to understand another's emotional state and feel with that person, or respond emotionally in a similar way

categorical self

early categorization of the self according to salient ways in which people differ, such as age, sex, phsyical characteristics, and goodness and badness


voluntary obedience to requests and commands

delay of gratification

waiting for an appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act

social referencing

where infants actively seek emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation

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