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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. ligand
  2. scaffolding proteins
  3. protein kinase
  4. apoptosis
  5. Response
  1. a enzyme that transfers phospate groups from ATP to a protein (these include many of the relay molecules in signal transuction pathways)
  2. b "controlled cell suicide" cells that are infected, damaged, or have reached the end of their functional life span
  3. c transduction signal finally triggers some sort of response
  4. d a molecule that specificlly binds to another molecule, often a larger one
  5. e large relay proteins to which other proteins are simultaneously attached

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. aggregations of bacteria that often form recognizable structures containing regions of specialized function
  2. enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups
  3. plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a G protein
    used by yeast mating factors, epinephrine, other hormones and neurotransmitters
    NOT enzymes
    G-protein is active when bound to a GTP
  4. A chemical signal is detected when signaling molecule binds to a receptor protein located at the cell's surface or inside the cell
  5. also called plant growth regulators

5 True/False Questions

  1. ligand-gated ion channelalso called plant growth regulators


  2. TransuductionBinding of the signaling molecule changes the receptor protein in some way, initating the conversion of a signal to a form to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response


  3. second messengerssmall, non-protein, water soluble molecules or ions
    can readily spread throught the cell by diffusion


  4. Intracellular Receptorsfound in either the cytoplasm or in the nucleus of target cells
    chemical signaling messengers must pass through the membrane to reach this receptor, so the chemical messengers are either hydrophobic, or small enough to cross the membrane (ex. steroid and thyroid hormones in animals)


  5. transcription factorscontrol which genes are turned on (which gense are transcribed to mRNA) ex. testosterone


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