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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. What is the source of phophate in a phosphorylation cascade?
  2. apoptosis
  3. Transuduction
  4. Paracrine Signaling (local)
  5. scaffolding proteins
  1. a ATP
  2. b "controlled cell suicide" cells that are infected, damaged, or have reached the end of their functional life span
  3. c secreting cell acts on a nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator (a growth factor, etc.) into the extracellular fluid
  4. d large relay proteins to which other proteins are simultaneously attached
  5. e Binding of the signaling molecule changes the receptor protein in some way, initating the conversion of a signal to a form to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. aggregations of bacteria that often form recognizable structures containing regions of specialized function
  2. protein kinase A
  3. found in either the cytoplasm or in the nucleus of target cells
    chemical signaling messengers must pass through the membrane to reach this receptor, so the chemical messengers are either hydrophobic, or small enough to cross the membrane (ex. steroid and thyroid hormones in animals)
  4. also called plant growth regulators
  5. type of membrane receptor containing a region that can act as a "gate" when the receptor changes shape
    when the signaling molecule bindsas a ligand to the receptor protein, the gate opens or closes, allowing or blocking the flow of specific ions

5 True/False Questions

  1. transcription factorsBinding of the signaling molecule changes the receptor protein in some way, initating the conversion of a signal to a form to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response

          

  2. Hormonal Signaling (long-distance)A nerve cell releases neurotransmitter molecules into the synapse, stimulating the target cell

          

  3. ReceptionA chemical signal is detected when signaling molecule binds to a receptor protein located at the cell's surface or inside the cell

          

  4. protein phosphatesenzyme that transfers phospate groups from ATP to a protein (these include many of the relay molecules in signal transuction pathways)

          

  5. protein kinaseenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups

          

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