Italian Scholar, Lived from 1304- 1374, considered to be one of the earliest Renaissance humanist, Referred to as the "father of Humanism"
Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
author of The Book of the Courtier which offered "how-to" advice to a member of the court of the Renaissance
a system of philosophical and religious doctrines composed of elements of Platonism and Aristotelianism and oriental mysticism
a philosophy in which interests and values of human beings are of primary importance
Florentine architect who was the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance (1377-1446)
Italian sculptor renowned as a pioneer of the Renaissance style with his natural, lifelike figures, such as the bronze statue David.
Giotto and Masaccio
Humanist Artists known for their lifelike and 3D figures
Leonardo Da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
Dutch painter whose many paintings exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance (1483-1520)
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
A Venetian man who created the style of mannerism in which artists sometimes distorted figures to express emotion and drama, Most famous of Venetian painters of Renaissance. - prolific. Richness of colors- especially, red. Many religious paintings.
(c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
Leader that called for elimination of The Catholic Church. Unfortunately the Great Schism came to an end with the Council of Constance, and he was burned a the stake. Lead the Hussites.
a division in the medieval Roman Catholic Church, during which rival popes were established in Avignon and in Rome.
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
This was the letter Martin Luther wrote to Archbishop Albert which explained that indulgences undermined the seriousness of the sacrament of penance
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
The Augsburg Confession
1530: a peace document, a statement of faith reflecting the beliefs of the reformers
Leader of Swiss Reformation. Agreed to disagree with Luther about communion. He thought it was only a symbol, and that it wasn't Christ's body or blood untill it touched your mouth, only symbolic. Found on the battlefield of the Swiss Civil War wounded and the Lutherans found him, cut him up into little pieces, then burn them and scattered the ashes over the land.
members of a radical movement of the 16th-century Reformation that viewed baptism solely as an external witness to a believer's conscious profession of faith, rejected infant baptism, and believed in the separation of church from state, in the shunning of nonbelievers, and in simplicity of life.
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
The first Tudor king of England, who was on the Lancaster side of the War of the Roses and won it in 1485
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
(1461-1483) French king, nicknamed the"Spider King," manipulated the Estates-General to gain a permanent taille, took over part of Burgandy when Charles the Bold died
French king, invited by Sforza to invade Florence, fought over Italy with Ferdinand of Aragon in the first Italian war
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
This young french ruler appointed Cardinal Armand Richelieu as his cheif minister to beat back the power of the Huguenots and strengthen the absolute power of the monarch.
This was the French king who reached an agreement with Pope Leo X and allowed the French king to select French bishops and abbots. During his reign the Estates General stopped meeting and consequently lost influence. After his reign, the monarchy was the strongest that it had ever bee
Along with Castile, a regional kingdom of the Iberian peninsula; pressed reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda.
Along with Aragon, a regional kingdom of the Iberian peninsula; pressed reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda.
Isabella of Castile
(1474-1504) married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469, led the Reconquista and began Inquisition with her husband
Ferdinand of Aragon
He married Isabella of Castile to form a union for Spain (though they were never politically united). He and Isabella worked together to form a strong infantry army in Spain.
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Tudor Queen of England. Succeeded Mary I in 1558 and ruled until 1603. In addition to leading the defeat of the Spanish Armada and developing England into a world power, she strengthened Protestantism. Daughter of Henry VIII.
King of England (1603-1625) and of Scotland as James VI (1567-1625). The son of Mary Queen of Scots, he succeeded the heirless Elizabeth I as the first Stuart king of England. His belief in the divine right of kings and his attempts to abolish Parliament and suppress Presbyterianism in Scotland created resentment that led to the English Civil War.
Petition of Right
Document prepared by Parliament and signed unwillingly by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land
a division of the English royal council, a court that used Roman legal procedures to curb real or potential threats from the nobility, the court so called because there were stars painted on the ceiling of the chamber in which the court sat.
House of Commons
one of the houses of Parliament including wealthy landowners and rich business leaders that represent the middle class and are elected to office
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
radical religious revolutionaries-sought social and political reforms, a more egalitarian (equal) society.
More of a fringe group, these occupied and cultivated commonlands, or lands privately owned in a general repudiation of property. Wanted communal ownership of property.
This was the king that took the throne during the Restoration and peacefully had agreements with the Parliament until he made secret agreements with Louis XIV to relax the laws against the English Catholics and eventually a Catholic became the next king
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688). The last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland, he was overthrown by his son-in-law William of Orange
The Glorious Revolution
In order to prevent a Catholic Dynasty the English Parliament drove out James II following the birth of his son and replaced him with the protestant Stahoulder of the Nederlands William, and his wife and daughter of James II, Mary II. This was a relativly bloodless revolution. (excepting the Irish Rebellion in which an Catholic coalition of English-Irish-French troops led by James were butchered).
William of Orange
Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
The Scientific Revolution
a fundamental transformation in scientific ideas in physics, astronomy, and biology, in institutions supporting scientific investigation, and in the more widely held picture of the universe
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center, heliocentric (1473-1543)
Embraced heliocentric theory of the universe; elliptical orbits of planets; Three laws of planetary motion
Scientist who built the first telescope and proved that planets and moons move. Persecuted for supporting Copernicus' ideas
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687)falling apple.
English philosopher who developed scientific method; believed that instead of relying on the ideas of ancient authorites, scientists should use inductive reasoning to learn about nature; wanted science to benefit industry, agriculture, and trade
French philosopher and mathematician who lived from 1596-1650. His discourse on Method states that all assumptions had to be proven on the basis of known facts. He wrote, "I think; therefore, I am." His method of questioning was built upon a strict, orderly logical reasoning.
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)
elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century
Art or literature characterized by a realistic view of people and the world; sticks to traditional themes and structures.
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
The French King who built the palace at versailles, The longest standing King of France "Sun King",, One of the most powerful monarchs of Europe, ruling 72 years. He was famous for his quote,"I am the state." Moved capital to Versailles which became a symbol of power.
This enormous, ostentatious monument to the power of the French Monarchy, built by Louis XIV over a long period of time, served as a manifestation of the power of absolute monarchy. Meant to impress and scare nobility, foreigners, and commoners alike, this palace was where Louis XIV moved his court in order to keep them under his control and away from the uncontrollable social scene in Paris.
An alliance between the English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians against the expansionist wars of Louis XIV.
The War of the Spanish Succession
Charles II died without an heir, leaving Spain to his sisters, one married to Leopold Habsburg, the other to Louis Bourbon. Balance of power principles called for a division of the spoils, but Charles' will called for the inheritance to be kept intact, going to Louis XIV's grandson. The Grand Alliance didnt want this.
chief minister, tried to solve France's financial problems but didn't because France entered the War of Austrian Succesion
the head of Habsburg elected in 1657 and in return keeping two promises: give no help to his cousins, the rulers of Spain, and the empire would be a state of princes, in which each ruler would be free from imperial interference
(r. 1711-40) Obsessed with keeping the Habsburg empire together, issued the Pragmatic Sanction. No male heir so the empire passed to Maria Theresa.
This was the act passed by Charles VI that stated that Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided, in order to allow his daughter to be ruler
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
The War of Austrian Succession
Started in December of 1740 when Frederick II seized the Austrian province of Silesia, violating the Pragmatic Sanction. Silesia was very important because it had a lot of iron. France decided to help Prussia (their traditional enemy), drawing Great Britain into the war as well. This French-Britain conflict expanded beyond Europe into the New World. The war ended in a stalemate in 1748 with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
(1640-1688) Great Elector, made permanent standing army, supported by wealthy landowners (junkers), practiced tax exemption
Prussian elector who succeeded Frederick William; he was known as "the Ostentatious," and in 1701 was crowned King Frederick I as a reward for aiding the Holy Roman Emperor during the War of the Spanish Succession.
Frederick William I
the son and successor of Frederick I who disliked French ways and got rid of most of its luxury and used the saved money to strengthen Prussia by doubling the size of its army and makign it the most efficient fighting force in Europe. He also created an efficient government bureaucracy and encouraged trade and the development of new industries. He required that all parents send their children to school.
"Frederick The Great"-1712-1786;King of Prussia, aggressive in foreign affairs. Used military to increase power. Encouraged religious tolerance and legal reform.
Peter the Great
tsar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Swedish king who organized the Swedish forces during the Great Northern War, after defeating the Russians he went to invade Poland and Russia had a chance to reorganize
The Great Northern War
conflict between Peter the Great and Charles XII of Sweden. Peter underestimated Charles XII, but soon reorganized his troops and fought back. Ended with peace of Nystadt, which made Russia the top power of Europe
conservative Swedish king who stayed out of european affairs
Swedish king who organized the Swedish forces during the Great Northern War while still a child, after defeating the Russians he went to invade Poland and Russia had a chance to reorganize and then defeated him. After his defeat, nobles began to take advantage of him, mother was forced to give power in Sweden to the Riksdag
absolute mess, couldn't do ****
This political party favored Parliament over the crown
English political party that supported royalty
Sir Robert Walpole
Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister (1676-1745)
The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.
The Seven Years War
A war in which England and France fought for supremacy in Europe & North America; caused by Britain's efforts to strengthen their navy, a conflict in Europe, North America, and India, lasting from 1756 to 1763, in which the forces of Britain and Prussia battled those of Austria, France, Russia, and other countries.
preliminary shift away from an agricultural economy; workers became full- or part-time producers who worked at home in a capitalist system in which materials, work, orders, and sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to the Industrial revolution
an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards
Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics
Theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once. (604)
A Scottish engineer who created the steam engine that worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines, this man continued improving the engine, inventing a new type of governor to control steam pressure and attaching a flywheel.
English clergyman who invented the power loom (1743-1823)
The new process farmers use to maintain the fertilness of their soil instead of fallowing which was not expedient and was wasteful; popularized by Jethro Tull and infamous in Norfolk by the late 18th century; in laymans terms it was called crop rotation
Invented Crop Rotation- Principal of rotating the crops every year to stop leaving fields fallow. It increased crops and profits
English inventor advocated the use of horses instead of oxen. Developed the seed drill and selective breeding.
18th century movement among wealthy British landed aristocrats to rationalize their farms. Using new farming technology and systems of crop rotation, they forced the agrarian poor off the old "village commons" that now became "enclosed" as private property.
The Treaty of Paris
ended the French and Indian War. It gave Britain control over all of Cananda and almost all of the U.S. Spain got control over the land west of the Mississippi