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Terms from the Unit Overview sheet for chapter 18, "Capital and Labor". At least I think it's Chapter 18...

Great Railroad Strike of 1877

Many railroad workers went on strike in response to wage cuts. Eventually President Hayes sent in troops to put the strikers down.

J.P. Morgan

One of the prominent bankers of this time period. He buys out Carnegie's steel holdings and turns them into U.S. Steel.

Corporations

A buisness owned by many people. In this time period these were established through the use of trusts.

The "New South"

The South after the period of reconstruction after the Civil War. Some were making efforts to industrialize. Views on blacks remained the same for the most part.

Pinkerton Detective Agency

A group of 'for hire' men who would put down strikes. The government sent this group in to break up many strikes.

Bessemer process

This process allowed steel to be crafted.

George M. Pullman

Created many different 'cars' for use on the railroads. His workers will eventually strike in response to his gratuitous wage cuts.

Time zones

These were created to help railroads schedule departure and arrival times.

Mass production

With factories, this could be accomplished. This creates many items that are all the same.

Pullman Strike

1894. The Pullman railroad workers go on strike because their wages got cut twice in one year. The price for town housing/general store stayed the same.

George Westinghouse

An inventor

Eugene V. Debs

He lead the Pullman Strike. The Supreme Court denied his wish to get out of jail, thus helping the 'big business'.

Cornelius Vanderbilt

A railroad owner. He had a monopoly over the railroads.

Scientific management

A technique used by business owners to find ways to manufacture goods faster.

Socialist Party of America

A group that developed in America around the 1900's. They worked for labor reforms and such.

refrigerated railroad cars

Railroad cars that could be cooled. This allowed goods to stay cool, so as not to spoil.

Knights of Labor

A labor union. This union accepted pretty much everyone, from women to blacks to employers. They argued for reform.

Industrial Workers of the World

A labor union started in the 1900's. Tried to organize all industrial workers in order to have greater effect on businesses. Also Known as the 'Wobblies

Terence Powderly

Leader of the Knights of Labor. Strove to get better pay, eight hour work-days, and wanted to end child labor.

Sherman Antitrust Act

1890. This act broke up trusts and was designed to keep trusts from forming. Any monopoly that fixed prices that restricted trade was also out. Unfortunately these terms were very vague and the Supreme Court often used this to the advantage of the businesses.

Andrew Carnegie

A monopoly holder of the steel industry. He had a vertical monopoly, in that he owned all the parts of the steel making process. He would donate to charitable causes, to make himself look good.

Samuel Gompers

President of the American Union of Labor.

Munn v. Illinois

A Supreme Court case. This upheld the 'Granger law' that placed a limit on the amount that railroads can charge farmers to ship their crops.

U.S. Steel

A steel monopoly owned by J.P. Morgan. It was formerly owned by Andrew Carnegie.

American Federation of Labor

One of the more effective unions. This was a combination of many craft unions.

Wabash Case

1886. States cannot regulate interstate commerce.

Gospel of Wealth

Written by Andrew Carnegie. In this pamphlet, Carnegie outlined ways that one could better themselves financially.

Haymarket Riots

1886. A rally that turned to violence when a person in the crowd threw a bomb and killed a police officer. The leaders of the rally were held responsible. They were tried and four of them were given the death sentence.

U.S. v E.C. Knight Co.

1895. Supreme Court undermined the federal government's authority to act against monopolies.

John D. Rockefeller

Owned the Standard Oil Company.

yellow-dog contracts

Workers in factories were often forced to sign these. These stated that a worker would not join strikes.

In re Debs

Debs brought back his issue again. The Supreme Court then allowed the government to put down strikes, which further weakened unions.

Standard Oil

A trust owned by John D. Rockefeller.

Homestead Steel Strike

A strike in Pittsburgh in the steel industry. When the Pinkertons were called in the strike disbanded.

Interstate Commerce Act

Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Committee) to monitor trade.

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