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One way to understand how early environment influences differing behaviors in similar species is through an experimental technique known as "cross fostering." Suppose that the curly-whiskered mud rat differs from the bald mud rat in several ways, for example curly-whiskered rats are much more aggressive. How would you set up a cross-fostering experiment to determine if environment plays a role in this mud rat's aggression?

You would place newborn curly-whiskered mud rats with bald mud rat parents, newborn bald mud rats with curly-whiskered mud rat parents, and let some mud rats of both species be raised by their own species. Then compare the outcomes.

Sparrows are receptive to learning songs only during a sensitive period.

imprinting

Parental protective behavior in turkeys is triggered by the cheeping sound of young chicks

sign stimulus

A stickleback fish will attack a fish model as long as the model has red coloring.

sign stimulus

A guinea pig loves the lettuce kept in the refrigerator and squeals each time the refrigerator door opens.

classical conditioning

Male insects attempt to mate with orchids but eventually stop responding to them.

habituation

The entire box shown in the figure below represents the niche of species A. Species A is biologically constrained from the striped area of its niche by species B. This is an example of

competitive exclusion.

Which of the following is an example of Batesian mimicry?

a nonvenomous snake that looks like a venomous snake

Which of the following is a density-independent factor limiting human population growth?

earthquakes

Every morning at the same time, John went into the den to feed his new tropical fish. After a few weeks John noticed that the fish would swim to the top of the tank as soon as he would enter the room. This is a good example of

classical conditioning

Which of the following statements about energy flow is incorrect?

Eating meat is probably the most economical way of acquiring the energy of photosynthetic productivity.

Elephants are not the most common species in African grasslands. The grasslands contain scattered woody plants, but they are kept in check by the uprooting activities of the elephants. Take away the elephants, and the grasslands convert to forests or to shrublands. The newly growing forests support fewer species than the previous grasslands. Elephants can be defined as what type of species in this community?

keystone

Assuming these age-structure diagrams describe human populations, in which population is unemployment likely to be most severe in the future?

- I

Which population is in the process of decreasing?

II

Assuming these age-structure diagrams describe human populations, which population is likely to experience zero population growth (ZPG)?

III

Which population appears to be stable?

III

Which of the following terms includes all of the others?

biodiversity

The energetic hypothesis and dynamic stability hypothesis are explanations to account for

the length of food chains

The species richness of a community refers to

the number of different species.

According to the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the difference between an endangered species and a threatened one is that

an endangered species is closer to extinction

Which of the following is an example of cryptic coloration?

a "walking stick" insect that resembles a twig

How is it that the open ocean produces the highest net primary productivity of Earth's ecosystems, yet net primary productivity per square meter is relatively low?

It has the greatest total area

The oak tree pathogen Phytophthora ramorum migrated 650 km in ten years. West Nile virus spread from New York to 46 others states in five years. The difference in the rate of spread is probably related to

the mobility of their hosts. Use the information below to answer the following questions.

When a female cat comes into heat, she urinates more frequently and in a large number of places. Male cats from the neighborhood congregate near urine deposits and fight with each other. Which of the following is a proximate cause of this behavior of increased urination?

It is a result of hormonal changes associated with her reproductive cycle.

Which of the following would be an ultimate cause of the male cats' response to the female's urinating behavior?

Male cats respond to the odor because it is a means of locating females in heat.

How is habitat fragmentation related to extinction?

Populations of organisms in fragments are smaller and, thus, more susceptible to extinction

____ 27. Prairie dogs once covered the expanses of the Great Plains. Their grazing made the grass more nutritious for the huge herds of bison, and a variety of snakes, raptors, and mammals preyed on the rodents. In fact, the black-footed ferret (now endangered) specialized in prairie dog predation. Today, growing neighborhoods have covered many prairie dog towns. Which of the following statements about prairie dogs is not true?

Their fundamental niche has diminished.

Which curve best describes survivorship in oysters?

E

Which curve best describes survivorship in squirrels?

C

Which curve best describes survivorship in humans who live in developed nations?

A

Which curve best describes survivorship that is independent of age?

C

Sow bugs become more active in dry areas and less active in humid areas. This is an example of

kinesis.

Resource partitioning is best described by which of the following statements?

Slight variations in niche allow similar species to coexist.

A species of fish is found to require a certain water temperature, a particular oxygen content of the water, a particular depth, and a rocky substrate on the bottom to thrive. These requirements are part of its

ecological niche.

Extinction is a natural phenomenon. It is estimated that 99% of all species that ever lived are now extinct. Why then do we say that we are now in a biodiversity crisis?

The current rate of extinction is as much as 1,000 times higher than at any other time in the last 100,000 years

Which of the following statements best describes the interaction between fire and ecosystems?

Many kinds of plants and plant communities have adapted to frequent fires.

Which of the following statements is consistent with the competitive exclusion principle?

Even a slight reproductive advantage will eventually lead to the elimination of inferior species

The presence of all of the following tend to increase species diversity except

competitive exclusion.

Which of the following is an example of aposematic coloration?

stripes of a skunk

Which of the following interactions can correctly be labeled coevolution?

a genetic change in a virus that allows it to exploit a new host, which responds to virus-imposed selection by changing its genetically controlled habitat preferences

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