outer (external) ear
consists of the auricle (pinna) & the external auditory canal (travels from auricle to eardrum; ceruminous glands secrete earwax)
Flap of the ear.
external acoustic meatus
s-shaped canal about 2.5 in long. A tube through which sound waves are transmitted to the middle ear
a gland in the ear canal that produces cerumen or ear wax
The eardrum. A structure that separates the outer ear from the middle ear and vibrates in response to sound waves.
the functions of the auditory ossicles, the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window
hammer; first of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear
anvil; middle of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear, passes vibrations from the malleus to the stapes
the stirrup-shaped ossicle that transmits sound from the incus to the cochlea, acts like a piston in the oval window transmitting vibrations to fluid in the inner ear
malleus, incus, and stapes, The three small bones found in the middle ear (the malleus, the incus, and the stapes) that help to amplify the vibrations from sound waves. The malleus is atached to the tympanic membrane and the stapes is attached to the oval window of the cochlea.
auditory tube (pharyngotympanic tube)
this connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx to help maintain equal air pressure on both sides of the eardrum, (on plane, ears pop), region where ear infections occur
what sound do the ear drums make that equalizes the pressure on both sides of the eardrum?
contained within the inner ear, this holds the sensory organs for equilibrium and hearing
membrane that covers the opening between the middle ear and inner ear
located just below the oval window; equalize pressure in the inner ear
tensor tympani muscle
a middle-ear muscle that is attached to the malleus. This muscle contracts in response to intense sound and to tactile stimulation of the force.
Smallest muscle in the body; moves stapes to avoid large sounds from reaching the inner ear
the fluid outside the membrane bony labyrinth
fluid within the cochlear duct of the inner ear
the structure for static balance, the position of the head relative to gravity
Organ of Corti
organ located in the cochlea; contains receptors (hair cells) that receive vibrations and generate nerve impulses for hearing
the two types of labyrinth
these structures provide a sense of equilibrium
the snail-shaped tube (in the inner ear coiled around the modiolus) where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the Organ of Corti
is a chamber in the bony labyrinth above the cochlear duct, opens to the oval window
is a chamber below the cochlear duct, opens to the round window
this separates the cochlear duct from the scala vestibuli
separates the cochlear duct from the scala tympani
scala media (cochlear duct )
is inside the cochlea and divides the cochlea into three chambers. its the middle chamber and contains endolymph
closer to the snail shell
organ of hearing, rests on the basilar membrane inside of the cochlear duct
hair cells which contract the tectorial membrane
the auricle directs sound waves into this, A membrane located above the basilar membrane; serves as a shelf against which the cilia of the auditory hair cells move
tympanic membrane (eardrum)
sound waves strike this, causing it to vibrate
the number of observations in a given statistical category
the particular auditory effect produced by a given cause
the distance (measured in the direction of propagation) between two points in the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave
the auditory cortex is found here.
static and dynamic
the two types of equilibrium
type of equilibrium that helps maintain the position of the head when the head and body are still
type of equilibrium that helps maintain balance when the head and body suddenly move and rotate
a sensory hair structure in the utriculus and the sacculus of the inner ear; orients the head with respect to gravity
thick, gelatinous, glycoprotein layer located directly over hair cells of the macula int he saccule and uricle of the internal ear
which part of the vestibulocochlear nerve is involved in equilibrium?
the organs of dynamic equilibrium
A gelatin-like structure containing a tuft of hairlike sensory receptor cells in the semicircular canals.
larger of two sacs within the membranous labyrinth of the vestibule in the inner ear
Most insolation is shortwave (between 0.2 and 5 microns). Wavelengths visible to the human eye account for a small portion of the shortwave energy--> 0.4 to 0.7 microns. High frequency
Most of the energy reradiated by Earth is this type of wavelength, ranging between 5 and 30 microns. Low frequency
provide rotational acceleration sensations
the dilated portion of a canal or duct especially of the semicircular canals of the ear
endolymphathic fluid goes up this duct rising into the endolymphathic sac
involuntary, jerking movements of the eyes
crystals within the ear
Fluid between cells