freedom from governmental control
having the same conditions and opportunities as everyone else
a term given to the philosophy of John Locke and other 17th and 18th century advocates of the protection of individual rights and liberties by limiting government power.
educated, middle class of france; provided force behind the revolution
Power is held by the people and exercised through the efforts of representatives elected by the people.
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
declaration of independence
the document recording the proclamation of the Second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
marquis de lafayette
French soldier who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army.
treaty of paris of 1783
Treaty Between England and the Colonies , formally ended the American Revolutionary War
meeting of delegates in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced the new U.S. Constitution
bill of rights
written list of freedoms the government promises to protect
privileges of lordship that allowed them to tax the peasantry for their own profit
louis xvi and marie antoinette
king and queen of France were spending much of france's money on themselves not on helping the citizens= citizens uprising= death of king and queen by guillotine.
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
oath of the tennis court
National Assembly is locked out of meeting place for estates-general and meets in tennis court where they pledged to not leave until a constitution was made. Starts the first phase of the revolution.
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789
declaration of the rights of man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
French provinces that were more "naturally organized"
civil constitution of the clergy
passed July 12, 1790 during the French Revolution, subordinated the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French government.
The Jacobin leader who seized control of France in 1793 and eventually went crazy. led the mountain
In Reflections of the Revolution in France, he forecast problems as those without political experience attempted to govern
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
declaration of pilnitz
the statment made by Austria and Prussia that they would attack France if anything happened to the King or Queen. empty threat gone wrong
replaced National Assembly; took away most of king's power
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
revolutionaries break into prisons across france and massacre thousands of people for fear that political prisoners will aid the austrian-prussian army
french formed governing body that abolished the constitutional monarchy, declared france a republic and executed louis xvi
battle of valmy
victory for france which stopped invading armies, national convention abolishes the monarchy and declares france a republic
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
committee of public safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.
the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
an economy in which government directs the use of national resources and regulates the economy to achieve both goals and stability.
believing in the social and economic equality of all people
reign of terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
it was the result of widespread opinion that the Revolution had become too radical, it was a return to more traditional spheres for men and women, caused by the fall of Robespierre, price control and regulations were removed. People suffered, risings broke out.
National Convention drafted a new Constitution which called for a 2 house legislature and an executive body of 5 men, known as this
Army general who rose to become Emperor of France and conquered more the half of Europe. Established a Consulate, Concordat with the church, and Civil Code. Defeated 1815 at Waterloo.
Napoleon named this after ousting the Directory; remained this until proclaiming himself emperor; first of three
A popular vote; in this case it made Napoleon the First Consul of France and legalized his power.
Napoleonic Code; this code preserved most of the gains of the revolution by recognizing the principle of the equality of all citizens before the law, and ect.
concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power "the majority of frenchmen are catholic"
The idea that the father was the head of the household and ruled with absolute authority.
-aim of Napoleon Bonaparte
-set back women's rights gained from French Revo.
head of Napoleons secret police
battle of trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson
battle of austerlitz
An important battle when Napoloen defeated the Third Coalition and all the countries had to sign treaties
confederation of the rhine
League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.
built by Napoleon and composed of three parts: an ever-expanding France, a number of dependent satellite kingdoms, and the largely independent but allied states of Austria, Prussia, and Russia
kingdoms basically under Napleon's control with a relative or a dummy ruler in place.
This tactic was used by both the Spanish and the Russians to defeat Napoleon's troops.
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
He was the Russian tsar during the Napoleonic Wars; he broke the continental system to trade with England, causing Napoleon to send troops to Russia even though he was involved in the Penninsular Wars
G.B., Austria, Prussia, and Russia united to defeat France and their Bonapartism, and also to ensure peace after war. After Napoleon, they resotred the Bourbon monarchy to France.
French monarch who was restored to the throne by the allies after Napoleon was defeated.
issued by Louis XVIII, accepted many of France's revolution changes and guaranteed civil liberties
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
battle of waterloo
Famous battle put end to Napoleon's Hundred Days. Nap defeated in June of 1815 by British under Duke of Wellington. A Prussian force under General Blucher arrived late in the day to tip the balance against Napoleon.