Chapter 3 Study Guide (Human Body)

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What is the job of the circulatory system?

moves blood and material through heart and body

What is plasma?

straw colored liquid
largest part of blood

What is the job of a red blood cell?

carries oxygen to other parts of the body

What is the job of a white blood cell?

fights germs

What is the job of a platelet?

forms blood clots

What is an artery?

vessel that carries blood AWAY from heart

What is a capillary?

smallest blood vessel

What is a vein?

vessel that carries blood TO heart

What does a valve do?

acts like a door

Where is an atrium in the heart?

upper part of the heart

Where is a ventricle int the heart?

lower part of the heart

What is mucus?

sticky fluid that traps dirt/germs

What does your trachea do?

carries air from larynx to lungs

What are bronchioles?

small tubes that branch out from the bronchi in the lungs

What is another name for air sacs?

alveoli

Describe the larnyx

vocal chords are stretched across it

What are cilia?

tiny hair-like structures that sweep away dirt in the respiratory system

Describe the diaphragm

dome-shaped muscle at bottom of chest

What gas does an organism need for its cells to get energy?

oxygen

List four diseases of the respiratory system

cold, flu, pneumonia, lung cancer

What is the esophagus?

tube of muscles in throat that help in swallowing

What does your epiglottis do?

covers your trachea

What do your salivary glands do?

make saliva that helps to begin digestion

What does your tongue do?

pushes down food and tastes it

What role does the stomach play in digestion?

produces fluids that help digest food

What are villi?

tiny finger-shaped structures that increase surface area in small intestines

Describe the small intestine

receives food from stomach; connects stomach to large intestine, has villi, digests most food

Describe the large intestine

digests what small intestine doesn't; takes water and salt from the remaining undigested food

What do the kidneys do?

clean the blood; control level of salt, water, calcium, nutrients, and other chemicals in the blood

What does the urinary bladder do?

stores urine until it leaves the body

Name two waste products removed from your body?

urine, sweat, CO2, carbon dioxide

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