The Second Great Awakening
Wave of religious revivals around 1800 that encouraged a culture of evangelicalism responsible for an upswing in prison reform, the temperance cause, the feminist movement, and abolition.
area of New York State along the Erie Canal that was constantly aflame with revivalism and reform; as wave after wave to fervor broke over the region, groups such as the Mormons, Shakers, and Millerites found support among the residents.
Female Moral Reform Society
It was organized by middle-class women in New York in 1834. They wanted to liberate prostitutes from lives of sin. Also they sought to protect the morality of single women. To this end they published lists of men who frequented prostitutes or abused women. This was a direct attack on the double standard of the time. The society was replicated in hundreds of American communities by 1840.
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance
1826, this group emerged to use techniques of revivalism to preach abstinence because, alcoholism was growing rapidly.
Martha Washington societies
Societies that protected families from alchohol
Education activist who worked towards better funding, longer school years, and higher pay for teachers
oldest utopian group by Mother Ann Lee- espoused radical social philosophy preaching celibacy and communal living
Leader of a radical New York commune that practiced "complex marriage" and eugenic birth control
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier.
religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830 (1805-1844)
He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.
William Lloyd Garrison
Ardent abolitionist that fought against slavery for moral reasons. His influence brought many people to his standard, as well as to oppose him. He created the Anti-Slavery Society. argued for immediate and complete emancipation of all slaves and founded The Liberator
wanted to end slavery immediately
The Lane Debates
18 days of discussion among the school's students and faculty of colonization and immediatism; immediatism won
African American Abolitionists
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
kentucky anti-slavery leader; presidential candidate of liberty party in 1840, free soil platform
Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."
John Quincy Adams
Sixth president of the United States He was in favor of funding national research and he appointed Henry Clay as his Secretary of State. During his presidency the National Republicans were formed in support of him. Repealed gag rule.
Election of 1828
Jackson defeats John Quincy Adams in this election, becoming our 7th President
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
their philosophy war the stamp of Andrew Jackson, believing the federal government should be limited in power, except to a degree that it worked to eliminate social and economic arrangements that entrenched privilege and stifled equal opportunity.
term given to the tyrannical actions of president andrew jackson
Maysville Road bill
Passed by Congress in 1830, authorized the government to buy stock in a road from Maysville to Lexington. The road lay within Kentucky to appear as a local goal, but was truly part of a larger scheme linking with the National Road. Jackson vetoed the bill as unconstitutional.
Doctrine of Nullification
Expressed in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it said that states could nullify federal laws.
John C. Calhoun
political philosopher from south carolina. Advocate for states rights, limited gvt and nullification. 1st vp that was a US citizen, 7th vp under adams and jackson. served as a house of rep secretary of war and state.
Webster Hayne debate
Hayne first responded to Daniel Webster's argument of states' rights versus national power, with the idea of nullification. Webster then spent 2 full afternoons delivering his response which he concluded by saying that "Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and inseparable"
The Force Act
This act gave the President the power to use armed troops, if necessary, to collect tariff from the states which were tardy paying or refused to pay them.
Compromise Tariff of 1833
Passed as a measure to resolve the nullification crisis, it provided that tariffs be lowered gradually, over a period of ten years, to 1816 levels.
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
Second Bank of the United States
Main issue in the election of 1832. Jackson dismantled it in his second term and passed the Deposit Act.
a semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class men of the Revolutionary War era belonged.
This party was a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.
Election of 1832
Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won - 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1.
Deposit Act of 1836
Allowed the Secretary of Treasury to choose one bank per state to do was the SBUS used to do. Also provided that any federal surplus over $5 million be given to the states starting in 1837
issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
born 1789, appointed from New Hampshire in 1845 by President Polk. dartmouth college undergrad, served in New Hampshire senate and superior court, then governor, was a U.S. senator, sec. of the navy and treasury, one of only two justices to serve in all three branches of government and as a governor
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
Election of 1836
The Whigs tried to eat the Democrats' national organization with an array of sectional candidates, hoping to throw the election into the House of Representatives. The strategy failed. Martin Van Buren, with significant support in every section of the country, defeated the three Whig candidates combined.
Martin Van Buren
He was the eighth president of the United States who was experienced in legislative and administrative life. He passed the Divorce Bill which placed the federal surplus in vaults located in large cities and denied the backing system.
canadians rebelled against GB and chartered an american ship to send supplies from NY, british authorities seized the ship and burned it killing an american. NY authorities arrested canadian authority who was under british orders. almost sparked a war btwn US and GB
1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition
Election of 1840
William Henry Harrison (Whigs) "hard cider and log cabins" campaign Vs. Martin Van Buren (Democrats)
William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery