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James K. Polk

president in March 1845. wanted to settle oregon boundary dispute with britain. wanted to aquire California. wanted to incorperate Texas into union.

Oregon Treaty

1846. Settled dispute of Oregon boundary dispute, stemming from the Treaty of 1818 in which both U.S. and British settlers were granted free navigation of the territory.

General Winfield Scott

General that invaded Mexico City

Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo

1848 ends the Mexican American War. For $15 Million the US acquired Texas territory north of the Rio Grande, New Mexico, and California. US territory increased by 1/3 as a result of the treaty.

Slave Power

term used by antislavery advocates to describe conspiracy of southern politicians and northern business owners. Planned to expand the bounds of slavery into new territory

Wilmot Proviso

proposed in 1846 that congress ban slavery in all southwestern lands that might become states; passed in the House but not by the Senate; slave states saw it as a northern attack on slavery

State sovereignty

The state has the political power to govern itself rather than the federal government

The Election of 1848

Lewis Cass (Democrat), Zachary Taylor (Whig), Martin Van Buren (Free-Soil Party). Zachary Taylor won.

Free-Soil Party

Formed in 1847 from antislavery Whigs and supporters of the Liberty Party- 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.

Prigg v. Pennsylvania

1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus weakening the fugitive slave laws.

Stephen Douglas

Senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty

compromise of 1850

Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War

Uncle Tom's Cabin

Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.

Election of 1852

BETWEEN: Franklin Pierce (Democrat) and Winfield Scott; RESULTS: WHIG party splits over nomination Fillmore v. Scott; Antislavery North vs. Southern Whigs that disliked Winfield Scott; Doomed Whig Party - Democratic party united under Pierce! Leads to formation of sectional parties instead of national parties. VICTOR: Franklin Pierce (Democrat)

Kansas-Nebraska Act

This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.

Election of 1856

Democrats nominated Buchanan, Republicans nominated Fremont, and Know-Nothings chose Fillmore. Buchanan won due to his support of popular sovereignty

Election of 1860

Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.

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