Oceanography 621A - History

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Egyptians

Organized shipborne commerce on the Nile River!

Mediterranean traders

First cartographers

Cretans and Phoenicians

First regular ocean traders

Polynesians

Among the first to use celestial navigation

Celestial

This type of navigation relies on using the stars to determine ones relative position on earth

Harrison

Invented the chronometer

Stick Charts

Earliest form of navigational or oceanographic map made of bamboo and shells

Oceanography

Integrated science studying the sea that including biology, chemistry, physics, and geology

71%

Earth is about ___________ water.

97%

Of the water found on earth, about _________ is found in oceans.

Vinland

This was the name given by the Vikings to Newfoundland.

Compass

The invention of the __________ and central rudder, and improvements in sail design were contributions made by the Chinese.

Leif

This Viking is thought to have been the first to land on North America.

Eratosthenes

First to calculate the circumference of the Earth

Prince Henry

Set up a centre for marine science and navigation in mid 1450s

Magellan

_____________ was the first to sail around the world.

Chronometer

John Harrison invented the ________________

Benjamin Franklin

Published the first chart of any current

Ptolemy

First to orient charts by placing east on the right hand side and north at the top

Matthew Maury

Father of physical oceanography

Antartica

The US Exploring Expedition explored ______________

Challenger

This expedition started the science of oceanography

Glomar

This expedition in 1968 found evidence to support sea floor spreading and plate tectonics.

Echo Sounder

This is used to map the deep ocean floor.

polar

Technological advances in food storage and ship design in the 1900s made these expeditions possible.

Cartographers

Make charts of the sea

Ptolemy

This person's estimate of the circumference of the earth was used by Christopher Columbus

Cook

European who New Zealand

Cook

European who mapped the Great Barrier Reef

Chinese

In early history, the people who voyaged in order to show off their dynasty and riches were the ______________

Oceanography

The process (or result) of applying the scientific method to the ocean, its surroundings and the life within it is called _________________

Physical

This type of oceanographer studies the aspects of the ocean such as tides, currents and ocean circulation

Hypothesis

An educated guess made to explain a phenomenon is called a ________________

Ocean

The vast body of saline water that occupies the depressions of the earth's surface is called the _______________

Sir James Ross

Took the earliest depth measurements

Marine Geologists

study sea floor sediments, plate tectonics, history of the earth and atmosphere

Chemical Oceanographers

study chemical composition of the oceans and their relationships to geology and biology.

Greeks

explored the Mediterranean and Atlantic-noticed a current running in and out. named it "okeanos" ocean was derived from this.

First Library of Alexandria

contained written info on items of interest to seafarers. All ships that entered the harbor were recorded and a copy of records was kept there.

Vikings

during the dark ages they wet on periodic raids. ships were so fast they could sail up rivers

Columbus

discovered the New world by accident. The native Americans had lived there for at least 11,000 years.

Maury

studied ship's logs with wind and temp data. assembled it into wind and current charts & issued them to sailors for giving him their logs when they returned.

HMS Challenger

Charles Thomson and John Murray led first scientific oceanographic voyage. 4 yrs. thought they was no life below 1,800ft. able to sample down to 26,850ft. found 4,717 new species. took 15 yrs. to produce the "Challenger Report" 50 volume report.

Marine Engineers

study how to build ocean going to vessels, harbors, oil platforms, etc.

Latitude

regularly spaced imaginary lines on Earth's surface running parallel to the equator

Longitude

regularly spaced imaginary lines on Earth's surface running north and south and converging at the poles

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