Woodrow Wilson: Foreign Policy and World War I (Chapter 6)

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Western Front

A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other. (p. 757)

Trench warfare

war from inside trenches enemies would try killing eachother with machine guns and tanks, and poison gas

the lusitania

The British ship that was topedoed by Germany. Americans also on the boat were killed.

zimmerman note

Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.

scheneck vs. us

Scheneck was an officer of an anti-war group who was arrested for violations of the Espionage Act. The case sparked rethinking of the First Amendment until the Supreme Court ruled the Espionage Act was justifiable.

espionage act

This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.

sedition act

Made it a crime to criticize the government or government officials. Opponents claimed that it violated citizens' rights to freedom of speech and freedom of the press, gauranteed by the First Amednment.

war industries board

This government agency oversaw the production of all American factories. It determined priorities, allocated raw materials, and fixed prices; it told manufacturers what they could and could not produce.

entente powers

The main allies were France, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, Italy and the United States.

central powers

in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies

great migration

movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920

fourteen points

the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations

treaty of versailles

Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.

propoganda

ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause

league of nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

bonds

a certificate issued by a government or private company which promises to pay back with interest the money borrowed from the buyer of the certificate: The city issued bonds to raise money for putting in new sewers.

selective service act

This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.

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