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IB history SL Paper 1: peacemaking and international relations

What was the philosophy behind Woodrow Wilsons 14 points

Self determination & The Creation of the League of Nations

What was the goal of the Mandate System

Independence

What was the Mandate System

A legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I

What countries was Britain given responsibility for under the mandate system

Iraq and Palestine

Which country was France given responsibility for under the mandate system

Syria (and later Lebanon)

Why did American population want the US to become isolated

Did not want dead soldiers and afraid of cost of wars in the future

How did the US encourage isolationism

Rejected Versailles
Fordney McCumber Tariff
Reduce in immigration

What was the Fordney McCumber Tariff

Tax placed on foreign goods making American goods more expensive

Why did the US become isolated economically

Foreign governments retaliated to Fordney McCumber Tariff by taxing goods

What was the aim of the disarmament conference in Washington

Limit the naval arms race

When was the Ruhr Crisis

1923-1925

Who was involved in the Ruhr crisis

Britain, France, Germany, US + Russia

What was the Ruhr Crisis a response to

The failure of the Weimar Republic under Chancellor Cuno to pay reparations in the aftermath of WW1

What did the French want from the Ruhr

Separation of Ruhr from Germany

What did the British want from the Ruhr

'Benevolent Passivity'

What did the Germans want from the Ruhr

To keep Ruhr

Why did the french fail during the invasion of Ruhr

Poor economic state, could no longer fund operation

What was the German governments resolution to the Ruhr crisis

Printed more money, causing hyper inflation

What did the Ruhr crisis lead to

The Dawes Plan

What did the Dawes Plan propose

Annual payments of reparantions

Why did the Germans attack the Dawes Plan

Because the amount were not reduced

Was the dawes plan a success

Yes, Currency establish, inflation undercontrol

What was the Locarno Spring

A treaty agreed and signed in October 1925 permitting Germany to become part of the League of Nations

How was the Locarno Spring treaty destroyed

By Hitler when he sent army into the Rhineland in 1936

Which countries did France give security to

Poland + Czech republic

What did the great depression lead to

Agression and collapse of international cooerperation
Brought Hitler to power
Mussolini engaged in agression in Africa

What nations were weakened by the depression

Germany, UK (economic powerhouses prior to 1914)

Why were the Germans hit so badly by the depression

America banks recalled loands

How was the Weiwar weakened by the depression

Unpopular economic policies
Rise if extremists
Collapse of government - social dems withdrew coalation

Keith Sheppards quote about depression

"depression was a gift to Hitler and the Nazis"

When was Manchuria

1931

What invaded who in Manchuria

Japanese (kwantung army) invaded Manchuria

Why did the Japanese want Manchura

Japan was becoming over populated and Manchuria offered 200,000sq kms of space
Believed it was rich in minerals and land

What kind of opinion did the Japanese have of the Chinese

LOW opinion

What was the effect of the depression on Japan

They were hit HARD, civillian gov had no solution

What was the Leagues response to Manchuria

Should be semi independent

How did Japan respond to the League after Manchuria crisis

Left the league and occupied Jehol, League could not enforce authority

Why did the British fear the Japanese

feared invasion of HK + singapore

When was Abyssinia

1935-1936

Who did Somalia attempt to take over, and what was Britain + France's reponse

Ethiopia - Nothing

Why did Mussolini want to build up a large empire in North Africa

Territory
Distract his people from impact of depression

What was the aim of taking control of Abyssinia

Provide land for Italian settlers
Connect Erithea with Italian Somaliland - horn of Africa under Italian control

What happened in the treaty of St. Germain

Czecheslovakia set up
Slovenia, Bosnia, Dalmatia go to Yugoslavia. Galicia given to Poland and Austria not allowed to integrate with Germany.

What happened in the treaty of Triannon

Hungary loses 2/3 of it's pre-war land to Austria, Czechoslovakia and Romania

What happened in the treaty of Neuilly

Bulgaria loses territory to Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia

What happened in the treaty of Sevres

Turks cede middle eastern empire; Greece gets Thrace, Straits controlled by the Allies. This was revised at Lausanne - Greeks expelled and Constantinople given back to Turkey.

What happened in the treaty of Riga

Russia was defeated by Poland. Polands Eastern Frontiers fixed.

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