Ch 15, 8

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The social -cognitive perspective is least likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of:

environmental influences

Learning is best defined as:

relatively permanent change in the behavior of an organism due to experience.

A pigeon can easily be taught to flap its wings in order to avoid shock but not for food reinforcement. According to the text, this is most likely so because

pigeons are biologically predisposed to flap their wings in order to escape aversive events and to use their beaks to obtain food.

Mirror neurons are found in the brain's _____ and are believed to be the neutral basis for ______.

frontal lobe; observational learning

Which of the following techniques would Freud have used to discover the latent content of his patients' dreams?

free association

After exploring a complicated maze for several days, a rat subsequently ran the maze with very few errors when food was placed in the goal box for the first time. This performance illustrates:

observational learning

Classical conditioning experiments by Rescorla and Wagner demonstrate that an important factor in conditioning is:

the predictability of the unconscious

When 2 year old Mathew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that Mathew was unable to resist the demands of his:

id

Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud's assumption that women:

have weak superegos

Carl Rogers suggested that the _____ is a central feature of personality.

self-concept

Jack finally takes out the garbage in order to get his father to stop pestering him. Jack's behavior is being influenced by:

negative reinforcement

Compared to those with an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are more likely to:

cope effectively with stress

The MyersBriggs type indicator classifies people according to personality types identified by:

Carl Jung

Which theorist emphasized that personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?

Rogers

Seligman was found that humans and animals who are exposed to aversive events they cannot escape may develop:

learned helplessness

In order to obtain a reward, a monkey learns to press a lever when 1000-Hz tone is on but not when a 1200-Hz tone is on. What kind of training is this?

discrimination

The perception that one's fate is determined by luck reflects:

an external locus of control

Bill once had a blue car that was in the shop more than it was out. Since then he will not even consider owning blue- or green-colored cars. Bill's aversion to green cars is an example of

generalization

Gambling is reinforced according to which schedule?

variable- ratio

Reggie's mother tells him that he can watch TV after he cleans his room. Evidently, Reggie's mother is attempting to use ________ to increase room cleaning.

all of the above

Which two dimensions of personality have the Eysencks emphasized?

extroversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability

Which of the following is an example of reinforcement?

removing an unpleasant stimulus after a response

In Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste-aversion learning, rats learned to associate:

taste with sickness

Mr.Duitoit was asked by his psychotherapist to look at some ambiguous pictures and make up a story about each Mr. Duitoit was most likely taking the:

TAT

Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanism described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between:

the actual self and the ideal self

As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor's cat wandered over. Your mother (who has a terrible fear of animals) screamed and snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of cats. Identify the UCS.

your mother's behavior

A cognitive map is a(n).

mental representation of one's environment

The major reason for the unreliability of the Rorschach inkblot test is the fact that:

psychologists often do not agree on how to score the results of the test

According to Freud, the unconscious is:

the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware

Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance is called:

the spotlight effect.

Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than ________ it.

b. describing; explaining

According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the _______ stage.

phallic

According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the:

ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized

When people are paid for performing tasks they enjoy, their self-motivation may decrease. This is called:

the over justification effect

Shaping is a(n) ________ technique for ________ a behavior.

operant; establishing

Which of the following statements concerning reinforcement is correct?

Learning is most rapid with continuous reinforcement, but intermittent reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction.

Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysenck's basic personality dimensions she would be classified as:

unstable- introverted

Learning by imitating others' behaviors is called ________ learning. The researcher best known for studying this type of learning is ________.

observational; Bandura

In distinguishing between negative reinforcers and punishment, we note that:

in contrast to punishment, negative reinforcement increases the likelihood of a response by the termination of an aversive stimulus.

With regard to personality, it appears that:

there is little consistency of behavior from one situation to the next but significant consistency of traits over the life span

When a conditioned stimulus is presented without an accompanying unconditioned stimulus, ________ will soon take place.

extinction

The Big Five personality factors are:

neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness

Freud is to the psychoanalytical perspective as Allport is to the _____ perspective.

trait

Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are least likely to be highly:

conforming

During the early psychosexual stages, the id derives pleasure from the distinct:

erogenous zones

According to the psychoanalytical theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the:

id

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a(n):

empirically derived and objective personality test

The highest most consistent rate of response is produced by a ________ schedule.

variable-ratio

During extinction, the _________ is omitted; as a result, the _______ seems to disappear.

UCS; CR

The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to be almost anyone is known as

the Barnum Effect

Punishment is a controversial way of controlling behavior because:

of all the above reasons

The text defines personality as:

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

Contemporary psychodynamic theorists are most likely to emphasize the importance of:

motivational conflict

Projective tests are most closely associated with the _____ perspective.

psychoanalytic

The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of:

self-discrimination

Walter Mischel's studies of college students' conscientiousness revealed only a modest relationship between a student being conscientious on one occasion and being similarly conscientious on another occasion. According to Mischel, this should make psychologists more cautious about emphasizing:

personality traits.

Experiments on taste-aversion learning demonstrate that:

for the conditioning of certain stimuli, the UCS need not immediately follow the CS.

The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of:

factor analysis

Putting on your coat when it is cold outside is a behavior that is maintained by:

negative reinforcement

Trait theory attempts to:

describe and classify people in terms of their predispositions to behave in certain ways

Abraham Maslow studied the lives of Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, and Eleanor Roosevelt in order to understand the nature of

self-actualization

Nancy decided to take introductory psychology because she has always been interested in human behavior. Jack enrolled in the same course because he thought it would be easy. Nancy's behavior was motivated by ________, Jack's by ________.

intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation

You always rattle the box of dog biscuits before giving your dog a treat. As you do so, your dog salivates. Rattling the box is a(n) ________; your dog's salivation is a(n) ________.

CS; CR

In Watson and Rayner's experiment, the loud noise was the ________ and the white rat was the ________.

UCS; CS

According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among:

behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events

A person whose self esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to:

criticize the shortcomings of others

Emma believes that she will be highly successful in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates:

an internal locus of control

Humanistic theorists have been criticized for:

underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors

Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development?

Jung

Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic:

personality traits

Learned helplessness is most likely to contribute to:

an external locus of control

In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, the meat served as a (n):

UCS

Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that certain patients' symptoms:

could not be explained readily in terms of neurological impairments.

In rejecting claims that personality trait measures fail to predict behavior effectively, Seymour Epstein emphasized the importance of:

multiple behavior assessments

Lars, a shoe salesman, is paid every two weeks, whereas Tom receives a commission for each pair of shoes he sells. Evidently, Lars is paid on a _______ schedule of reinforcement, and Tom on a _______ schedule of reinforcement

fixed-interval; fixed-ratio

The use of free association is central to the process of

psychoanlysis

In promotion observation learning, the most effective models are those that we perceive as:

any of the above

Which theorists have been most directly criticized for underestimating the variability of behavior from situation to situation?

trait

According to psychoanalytic theory, boys' fear of castration is most closely associated with

the Oedipus complex

Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stave as:

fixation

Which perspective on personality emphasizes the interaction b/w the individual and the environment in shaping personality?

social-cognitive

Ego is to id as _______ is to __________.

reality principle; pleasure principle

Neo-Freudian personality theorists were most likely to disagree with Freud about the importance of:

childhood sexual instincts

According to Freud, the personality system that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the:

superego

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