many village priests _______ and had families. this was against church rulings
bishops selling positions in the church
kings appointed bishops
pope leo ix, pope gregory vii
these 2 popes enforced church laws against simony and priests marrying
in the early ____s, gothic architecture emerged throughout medieval europe
gothic cathedrals thrust upward as if reaching toward ______
ribbed vaults, flying buttresses, pointed arches, tall spires
4 main parts of gothic architecture
all the elements of the gothic cathedral were meant to inspire the worshipper with the magnificence of ___
the age of faith also inspired wars of ________
byzantine emperor in 1093, sent an appeal to robert, count of flanders. asked for help against the muslim turks who were threatening to conquer constantinople
count of flanders
pope urban ii
issued a call for a "holy war" or crusade to gain control over the holy land.
economic, social, political
the crusades had ________, ______, and _________ goals
the byzantine emperor in constantinople appealed to christians to stop ______ attacks
the pope wanted to reclaim palestine and reunite ___________, which had split into eastern and western branches in 1054
kings and the church saw the crusades as an opportunity to get rid of quarrelsome _______ who fought each other and threatened the peace of the kingdoms
others who participated in the crusades were _______ ____ who didn't stand to inherit their father's property. they were looking for land, a position in society, and adventure
in the later crusades _________ profited by making cash loans to finance the journey. they also leased their ships for a hefty fee to transport armies over the mediterranean sea.
european ________ who lived and traded in the crusader states expanded trade between europe and southwest asia. this trade benefited both christians and muslims
the failure of lesser crusades weakened the power of the ____
the crusades weakened the feudal nobility and increased the power of _____
the fall of constantinople weakened the _________ empire
for muslims, the intolerance and prejudice displayed by christians in the holy land left behind a legacy of __________ and _______. this legacy continues in the present
europe's great revival would have been impossible without better ways of _______
expanding ____________ required an increased food supply
a warmer _______, which lasted from about 800 to 1200, brought improved farm production.
farmers began to _________ lands in regions once too cold to grow crops. they also developed new methods to take advantage of more available land
for hundreds of years, peasants had depended on ____ to pull their plows. _____ lived on the poorest straw and stubble so were easy to keep.
needed better food than oxen, but could plow 3x as much land in one day
sometime before 900, farmers in europe began using a _______ that fitted across the horse's chest, enabling it to pull a plow
three field system
in 800ad, villages began to organize their lands into 3 fields. two of the fields were planted, and the other lay fallow for a year. under this system, farmers could grow land on 2/3 of their land instead of 1/2. as a result, food production increased, villagers had more to eat, and the european population grew
increased availability of trade goods and new ways of doing business changed life in europe. taken together, this is called the __________ ___________
most trade took place in _____
________ from nearby manors traveled to town on fair days, hauling items to trade
great _____ were held several times a year, usually during religious festivals, when many people would be in town.
the most common trade item at fairs
local markets met all the needs of daily life for a small community. no longer was everything produced on a self-sufficient _____
more goods from _______ lands became available
_____ ______ spread across europe from flanders to italy
italian ________ _____ traveled the mediterranean to ports in byzantium such as constantinople. they also traveled to muslim ports along the north african coast
increased business at _______ and _____ made merchants willing to take chances on buying merchandise that they could sell at a profit. merchants then reinvested the profits in more goods
as traders moved from fair to fair, they needed large amounts of ____ or ______ and ways to exchange many types of currencies.
bills of exchange established exchange rates between different _______ systems.
letters of credit
_______ __ ______ between merchants eliminated the need to carry large amounts of cash and made trading easier
merchants looked for new markets and opportunities to make a ______
lending money at interest
banking became an important business, especially in _____
increased _____ brought many changes to aspects of society
2 of the most important changes in society
for centuries, invaders from various regions in europe landed on english shores. the ______ and ______ stayed
in the 800s, britain was battered by fierce raids by _____ _______. they were so feared that a special prayer was said against them in churches
alfred the great
only anglo-saxon king (871-899) who could turn back the viking invaders
"land of the angles"
danish king who conquered england in 1016, molding anglo-saxons and vikings into one people.
king edward the confessor
took the english throne in 1042. died in 1066 without an heir
william the conqueror
the duke of normandy. king edward's cousin. claimed the english crown
a region in the north of france that had been conquered by the vikings. comes from "northmen"
the normans were descended from the vikings, but were ______ in language and culture
anglo-saxon who claimed the throne. william's rival
the battle of hastings
october 4, 1066. battle fought which changed the course of english history. the normans won
after his victory, william claimed all of _______ his personal property. kept about 1/5 for himself, then granted the rest to norman lords who swore oaths of loyalty to him personally
william unified control of the lands and laid the foundation for centralized __________ in england
pope boniface viii
in 1300, ____ ________ ___ attempted to enforce papal authority on kings as previous popes had. when king philip iv of france asserted his authority over french bishops, ____ ________ ___ responded with an official document. it stated that kings must obey popes
instead of obeying the pope, philip iv had him held ________ in september 1303. the king planned to bring him to france for trial.
never again would a pope be able to force _________ to obey him
college of cardinals
in 1305, philip iv persuaded the _______ __ _________ to choose a french archbishop as the new pope.
pope clement v
this newly selected pope moved from rome to avignon in france.
popes lived in ______ for 69 years
the move to avignon badly _________ the church
when reformers tried to move the papacy back to ____, the results were even worse.
pope gregory xi
in 1378, ____ _______ __ died while visiting rome. the college of cardinals then met in rome to choose a successor. they chose pope urban vi
pope urban vi
successor to pope gregory xi, his passion for reform and his arrogant personality caused the cardinals to elect a second pope a few months later
pope clement vii
pope who ruled alongside urban vi. also known as robert geneva. spoke french
the french pope lived in avignon and the italian pope lived in rome. after they both excommunicated each other, the split in the church known as the _____ ______ happened.
council of constance
in 1414, the _______ __ ________ attempted to end the great schism by choosing a single pope. they forced all 3 of the current popes to resign.
in 1417, the council chose this new pope, ending the great schism but weakening the papacy
preached that jesus christ, not the pope, was the true head of the church. he was much offended by the worldliness and wealth many clergy displayed. he believed that the clergy should own no land or wealth. also taught that the bible alone-not the pope-was the final authority for christian life.
professor in bohemia, taught that the authority of the bible was higher than that of the pope. he was excommunicated in 1412 and burned at the stake in 1415
approximately 1/3 of the european population died of the deadly disease known as the _______ ______
italian writer who described the effect of the plague
the plague began in _____
another name for the plague
in 1347, a fleet of genoese merchant ships arrived in ______ carrying the bubonic plague.
the bubonic plague took about _ years to reach all corners of europe. some communities escaped unharmed, but in others, approximately 2/3 to 3/4 of those who caught it died
total people killed by the plague
town populations ____ (plague effect)
trade ________. prices rose (plague effect)
_____ left the manor in search of better wages (plague effect)
____ were blamed for bringing on the plague. they were driven from their homes or massacred. (plague effect)
the church suffered a loss of ________ (plague effect)
england and france battled with each other on french soil for just over a _______
the century of war between england and france marked the end of medieval europe's ________
claimed the right to the french throne when the last capetian king died without a successor
hundred years war
1337-1453, launched by edward iii, victory passed back and forth between the 2 countries involved. Finally, the french rallied and drove out the english from every city except calais
the hundred years war brought a change in the style of ________ in europe
the english introduced the _______ and demonstrated its power in 3 significant battles: crecy, poitiers, and agincourt
battle of crecy
the english army was outnumbered by a french army 3x its size. the french army included knights and archers with crossbows. but the english longbowmen dominated and won the battle.
the mounted, heavily armored medieval ______ was soon to become extinct
battle of poitiers
10 years after the battle of crecy, another english victory
battle of agincourt
1415, the third english victory
in 1420, france and england signed a treaty stating that ______ _ would inherit the french crown upon death of charles vi.
joan of arc
in 1429, a teenage french peasant girl named ____ __ ___ felt moved by god to rescue france from its english conquerors. she wanted to give the french crown to france's true king, charles vii
in 1429, joan led the french into battle at a fort city near _______. the fort blocked the road to _______. the french retreated in despair and the siege of _______ was complete
charles vii was crowned king here on july 17, 1429.
joan was captured by the ___________ in 1429. they turned her over to the english. charles vii did nothing to help her. joan was burned at the stake
a feeling of ___________ emerged in england and france. now, instead of fighting for a feudal lord, people fought for their country.
the power and prestige of the ______ ________ increased
war of the roses
a period of internal turmoil in england in which 2 noble houses fought for the throne.
the end of the hundred years war is considered the end of the ______ ____