World History Midterm - The Formation of Western Europe

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married

many village priests _______ and had families. this was against church rulings

simony

bishops selling positions in the church

lay investiture

kings appointed bishops

pope leo ix, pope gregory vii

these 2 popes enforced church laws against simony and priests marrying

1100

in the early ____s, gothic architecture emerged throughout medieval europe

heaven

gothic cathedrals thrust upward as if reaching toward ______

ribbed vaults, flying buttresses, pointed arches, tall spires

4 main parts of gothic architecture

god

all the elements of the gothic cathedral were meant to inspire the worshipper with the magnificence of ___

conquest

the age of faith also inspired wars of ________

alexius comnenus

byzantine emperor in 1093, sent an appeal to robert, count of flanders. asked for help against the muslim turks who were threatening to conquer constantinople

robert

count of flanders

pope urban ii

issued a call for a "holy war" or crusade to gain control over the holy land.

crusade

holy war

economic, social, political

the crusades had ________, ______, and _________ goals

muslim

the byzantine emperor in constantinople appealed to christians to stop ______ attacks

christendom

the pope wanted to reclaim palestine and reunite ___________, which had split into eastern and western branches in 1054

knights

kings and the church saw the crusades as an opportunity to get rid of quarrelsome _______ who fought each other and threatened the peace of the kingdoms

younger sons

others who participated in the crusades were _______ ____ who didn't stand to inherit their father's property. they were looking for land, a position in society, and adventure

merchants

in the later crusades _________ profited by making cash loans to finance the journey. they also leased their ships for a hefty fee to transport armies over the mediterranean sea.

merchants

european ________ who lived and traded in the crusader states expanded trade between europe and southwest asia. this trade benefited both christians and muslims

pope

the failure of lesser crusades weakened the power of the ____

kings

the crusades weakened the feudal nobility and increased the power of _____

byzantine

the fall of constantinople weakened the _________ empire

bitterness, hatred

for muslims, the intolerance and prejudice displayed by christians in the holy land left behind a legacy of __________ and _______. this legacy continues in the present

farming

europe's great revival would have been impossible without better ways of _______

civilization

expanding ____________ required an increased food supply

climate

a warmer _______, which lasted from about 800 to 1200, brought improved farm production.

cultivate

farmers began to _________ lands in regions once too cold to grow crops. they also developed new methods to take advantage of more available land

oxen

for hundreds of years, peasants had depended on ____ to pull their plows. _____ lived on the poorest straw and stubble so were easy to keep.

horses

needed better food than oxen, but could plow 3x as much land in one day

harness

sometime before 900, farmers in europe began using a _______ that fitted across the horse's chest, enabling it to pull a plow

three field system

in 800ad, villages began to organize their lands into 3 fields. two of the fields were planted, and the other lay fallow for a year. under this system, farmers could grow land on 2/3 of their land instead of 1/2. as a result, food production increased, villagers had more to eat, and the european population grew

commercial revolution

increased availability of trade goods and new ways of doing business changed life in europe. taken together, this is called the __________ ___________

towns

most trade took place in _____

peasants

________ from nearby manors traveled to town on fair days, hauling items to trade

fairs

great _____ were held several times a year, usually during religious festivals, when many people would be in town.

cloth

the most common trade item at fairs

manor

local markets met all the needs of daily life for a small community. no longer was everything produced on a self-sufficient _____

foreign

more goods from _______ lands became available

trade routes

_____ ______ spread across europe from flanders to italy

merchant ships

italian ________ _____ traveled the mediterranean to ports in byzantium such as constantinople. they also traveled to muslim ports along the north african coast

markets, fairs

increased business at _______ and _____ made merchants willing to take chances on buying merchandise that they could sell at a profit. merchants then reinvested the profits in more goods

cash, credit

as traders moved from fair to fair, they needed large amounts of ____ or ______ and ways to exchange many types of currencies.

coinage

bills of exchange established exchange rates between different _______ systems.

letters of credit

_______ __ ______ between merchants eliminated the need to carry large amounts of cash and made trading easier

profit

merchants looked for new markets and opportunities to make a ______

usury

lending money at interest

italy

banking became an important business, especially in _____

trade

increased _____ brought many changes to aspects of society

jobs, houses

2 of the most important changes in society

angles, saxons

for centuries, invaders from various regions in europe landed on english shores. the ______ and ______ stayed

danish vikings

in the 800s, britain was battered by fierce raids by _____ _______. they were so feared that a special prayer was said against them in churches

alfred the great

only anglo-saxon king (871-899) who could turn back the viking invaders

england

"land of the angles"

canute

danish king who conquered england in 1016, molding anglo-saxons and vikings into one people.

king edward the confessor

took the english throne in 1042. died in 1066 without an heir

william the conqueror

the duke of normandy. king edward's cousin. claimed the english crown

normandy

a region in the north of france that had been conquered by the vikings. comes from "northmen"

french

the normans were descended from the vikings, but were ______ in language and culture

harold godwinson

anglo-saxon who claimed the throne. william's rival

the battle of hastings

october 4, 1066. battle fought which changed the course of english history. the normans won

england

after his victory, william claimed all of _______ his personal property. kept about 1/5 for himself, then granted the rest to norman lords who swore oaths of loyalty to him personally

government

william unified control of the lands and laid the foundation for centralized __________ in england

pope boniface viii

in 1300, ____ ________ ___ attempted to enforce papal authority on kings as previous popes had. when king philip iv of france asserted his authority over french bishops, ____ ________ ___ responded with an official document. it stated that kings must obey popes

prisoner

instead of obeying the pope, philip iv had him held ________ in september 1303. the king planned to bring him to france for trial.

monarchs

never again would a pope be able to force _________ to obey him

college of cardinals

in 1305, philip iv persuaded the _______ __ _________ to choose a french archbishop as the new pope.

pope clement v

this newly selected pope moved from rome to avignon in france.

avignon

popes lived in ______ for 69 years

weakened

the move to avignon badly _________ the church

rome

when reformers tried to move the papacy back to ____, the results were even worse.

pope gregory xi

in 1378, ____ _______ __ died while visiting rome. the college of cardinals then met in rome to choose a successor. they chose pope urban vi

pope urban vi

successor to pope gregory xi, his passion for reform and his arrogant personality caused the cardinals to elect a second pope a few months later

pope clement vii

pope who ruled alongside urban vi. also known as robert geneva. spoke french

great schism

the french pope lived in avignon and the italian pope lived in rome. after they both excommunicated each other, the split in the church known as the _____ ______ happened.

council of constance

in 1414, the _______ __ ________ attempted to end the great schism by choosing a single pope. they forced all 3 of the current popes to resign.

martin v

in 1417, the council chose this new pope, ending the great schism but weakening the papacy

john wycliffe

preached that jesus christ, not the pope, was the true head of the church. he was much offended by the worldliness and wealth many clergy displayed. he believed that the clergy should own no land or wealth. also taught that the bible alone-not the pope-was the final authority for christian life.

jan hus

professor in bohemia, taught that the authority of the bible was higher than that of the pope. he was excommunicated in 1412 and burned at the stake in 1415

bubonic plague

approximately 1/3 of the european population died of the deadly disease known as the _______ ______

giovanni boccaccio

italian writer who described the effect of the plague

asia

the plague began in _____

black death

another name for the plague

sicily

in 1347, a fleet of genoese merchant ships arrived in ______ carrying the bubonic plague.

4

the bubonic plague took about _ years to reach all corners of europe. some communities escaped unharmed, but in others, approximately 2/3 to 3/4 of those who caught it died

25 million

total people killed by the plague

fell

town populations ____ (plague effect)

declined

trade ________. prices rose (plague effect)

serfs

_____ left the manor in search of better wages (plague effect)

jews

____ were blamed for bringing on the plague. they were driven from their homes or massacred. (plague effect)

prestige

the church suffered a loss of ________ (plague effect)

century

england and france battled with each other on french soil for just over a _______

society

the century of war between england and france marked the end of medieval europe's ________

edward iii

claimed the right to the french throne when the last capetian king died without a successor

hundred years war

1337-1453, launched by edward iii, victory passed back and forth between the 2 countries involved. Finally, the french rallied and drove out the english from every city except calais

warfare

the hundred years war brought a change in the style of ________ in europe

longbow

the english introduced the _______ and demonstrated its power in 3 significant battles: crecy, poitiers, and agincourt

battle of crecy

the english army was outnumbered by a french army 3x its size. the french army included knights and archers with crossbows. but the english longbowmen dominated and won the battle.

knight

the mounted, heavily armored medieval ______ was soon to become extinct

battle of poitiers

10 years after the battle of crecy, another english victory

battle of agincourt

1415, the third english victory

henry v

in 1420, france and england signed a treaty stating that ______ _ would inherit the french crown upon death of charles vi.

joan of arc

in 1429, a teenage french peasant girl named ____ __ ___ felt moved by god to rescue france from its english conquerors. she wanted to give the french crown to france's true king, charles vii

orleans

in 1429, joan led the french into battle at a fort city near _______. the fort blocked the road to _______. the french retreated in despair and the siege of _______ was complete

reims

charles vii was crowned king here on july 17, 1429.

burgundians

joan was captured by the ___________ in 1429. they turned her over to the english. charles vii did nothing to help her. joan was burned at the stake

nationalism

a feeling of ___________ emerged in england and france. now, instead of fighting for a feudal lord, people fought for their country.

french monarch

the power and prestige of the ______ ________ increased

war of the roses

a period of internal turmoil in england in which 2 noble houses fought for the throne.

middle ages

the end of the hundred years war is considered the end of the ______ ____

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