pope leo ix, pope gregory vii
these 2 popes enforced church laws against simony and priests marrying
all the elements of the gothic cathedral were meant to inspire the worshipper with the magnificence of ___
byzantine emperor in 1093, sent an appeal to robert, count of flanders. asked for help against the muslim turks who were threatening to conquer constantinople
the pope wanted to reclaim palestine and reunite ___________, which had split into eastern and western branches in 1054
kings and the church saw the crusades as an opportunity to get rid of quarrelsome _______ who fought each other and threatened the peace of the kingdoms
others who participated in the crusades were _______ ____ who didn't stand to inherit their father's property. they were looking for land, a position in society, and adventure
in the later crusades _________ profited by making cash loans to finance the journey. they also leased their ships for a hefty fee to transport armies over the mediterranean sea.
european ________ who lived and traded in the crusader states expanded trade between europe and southwest asia. this trade benefited both christians and muslims
for muslims, the intolerance and prejudice displayed by christians in the holy land left behind a legacy of __________ and _______. this legacy continues in the present
farmers began to _________ lands in regions once too cold to grow crops. they also developed new methods to take advantage of more available land
for hundreds of years, peasants had depended on ____ to pull their plows. _____ lived on the poorest straw and stubble so were easy to keep.
sometime before 900, farmers in europe began using a _______ that fitted across the horse's chest, enabling it to pull a plow
three field system
in 800ad, villages began to organize their lands into 3 fields. two of the fields were planted, and the other lay fallow for a year. under this system, farmers could grow land on 2/3 of their land instead of 1/2. as a result, food production increased, villagers had more to eat, and the european population grew
increased availability of trade goods and new ways of doing business changed life in europe. taken together, this is called the __________ ___________
great _____ were held several times a year, usually during religious festivals, when many people would be in town.
local markets met all the needs of daily life for a small community. no longer was everything produced on a self-sufficient _____
italian ________ _____ traveled the mediterranean to ports in byzantium such as constantinople. they also traveled to muslim ports along the north african coast
increased business at _______ and _____ made merchants willing to take chances on buying merchandise that they could sell at a profit. merchants then reinvested the profits in more goods
as traders moved from fair to fair, they needed large amounts of ____ or ______ and ways to exchange many types of currencies.
letters of credit
_______ __ ______ between merchants eliminated the need to carry large amounts of cash and made trading easier
for centuries, invaders from various regions in europe landed on english shores. the ______ and ______ stayed
in the 800s, britain was battered by fierce raids by _____ _______. they were so feared that a special prayer was said against them in churches
a region in the north of france that had been conquered by the vikings. comes from "northmen"
the battle of hastings
october 4, 1066. battle fought which changed the course of english history. the normans won
after his victory, william claimed all of _______ his personal property. kept about 1/5 for himself, then granted the rest to norman lords who swore oaths of loyalty to him personally
william unified control of the lands and laid the foundation for centralized __________ in england
pope boniface viii
in 1300, ____ ________ ___ attempted to enforce papal authority on kings as previous popes had. when king philip iv of france asserted his authority over french bishops, ____ ________ ___ responded with an official document. it stated that kings must obey popes
instead of obeying the pope, philip iv had him held ________ in september 1303. the king planned to bring him to france for trial.
college of cardinals
in 1305, philip iv persuaded the _______ __ _________ to choose a french archbishop as the new pope.
pope gregory xi
in 1378, ____ _______ __ died while visiting rome. the college of cardinals then met in rome to choose a successor. they chose pope urban vi
pope urban vi
successor to pope gregory xi, his passion for reform and his arrogant personality caused the cardinals to elect a second pope a few months later
the french pope lived in avignon and the italian pope lived in rome. after they both excommunicated each other, the split in the church known as the _____ ______ happened.
council of constance
in 1414, the _______ __ ________ attempted to end the great schism by choosing a single pope. they forced all 3 of the current popes to resign.
preached that jesus christ, not the pope, was the true head of the church. he was much offended by the worldliness and wealth many clergy displayed. he believed that the clergy should own no land or wealth. also taught that the bible alone-not the pope-was the final authority for christian life.
professor in bohemia, taught that the authority of the bible was higher than that of the pope. he was excommunicated in 1412 and burned at the stake in 1415
approximately 1/3 of the european population died of the deadly disease known as the _______ ______
the bubonic plague took about _ years to reach all corners of europe. some communities escaped unharmed, but in others, approximately 2/3 to 3/4 of those who caught it died
____ were blamed for bringing on the plague. they were driven from their homes or massacred. (plague effect)
claimed the right to the french throne when the last capetian king died without a successor
hundred years war
1337-1453, launched by edward iii, victory passed back and forth between the 2 countries involved. Finally, the french rallied and drove out the english from every city except calais
the english introduced the _______ and demonstrated its power in 3 significant battles: crecy, poitiers, and agincourt
battle of crecy
the english army was outnumbered by a french army 3x its size. the french army included knights and archers with crossbows. but the english longbowmen dominated and won the battle.
in 1420, france and england signed a treaty stating that ______ _ would inherit the french crown upon death of charles vi.
joan of arc
in 1429, a teenage french peasant girl named ____ __ ___ felt moved by god to rescue france from its english conquerors. she wanted to give the french crown to france's true king, charles vii
in 1429, joan led the french into battle at a fort city near _______. the fort blocked the road to _______. the french retreated in despair and the siege of _______ was complete
joan was captured by the ___________ in 1429. they turned her over to the english. charles vii did nothing to help her. joan was burned at the stake
a feeling of ___________ emerged in england and france. now, instead of fighting for a feudal lord, people fought for their country.
war of the roses
a period of internal turmoil in england in which 2 noble houses fought for the throne.