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Which of the following structures is located in the alveolar processes?

TEETH, villi, hard palate, soft palate

The portion of the stomach surrounding the lower esophageal sphincter is called the:

CARDIA, fundus, pylorus, antrum

The islets of Langerhans secrete:

pancreatic juice, INSULIN, intrinsic factor, inhibiting hormones

The area in the duodunum where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct empty is called the:

AMPULLA OF VATER, duct of santorini, wirsung's duct, islets of langerhans

The primary function of the gallbladder is to:

STORE BILE, produce bile, digest fats, store fats

The plicae circulares, microvilli, and villi are:

all found in lg intest, STRUCTURES THAT INCREASE SURFACE ABSORPTION AREA IN THE SM INTEST, glands that secrete digestive enzymes, struct that give the intes it puckered appearance

The first part of the small intestine is the:

DUODENUM, jejunum, ileum, cecum

The appendix is attached to the:

ascending colon, descending colon, CECUM, transverse colon

The double-layered, apron-like structure that hangs from the lower border of the stomach is the:

GREATER OMENTUM, mesentery, ligamentum, peritoneum

The main function of the large intestine is to:

digest food, absorb food nutrients, REABSORB WATER & ELECTROLYTES, digest carbs

A chemical reaction that provides energy by the breakdown of food molecules is called:

anabolism, CATABOLISM, metabolism, glycogenesis

Which of the following substances is the body's preferred source of energy?

CARBOHYDRATES, fats, proteins, water

The process by which glucose is stored in the liver & skeletal muscle cells as glycogen is:

gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, GLYCOGENESIS, glycolysis

The structure that binds the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall is the:

MESENTERY, greater omentum, falciform ligament, lesser omentum

The salivary glands located in the front of the ear that become inflamed and enloarged during mumps are the:

sublingual, subungual, PAROTID, submandibular

The catabolism of fats produces which of the following substances?

amino acids, glycogen, KETONE BODIES, insulin

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are absorbed in the:

INTESTINE, pancreas, stomach, liver

The organ the lies posterior to the greater curvature of the stomach and is connected by a duct to the duodenum is the:

PANCREAS, gallbladder, small intestine, liver

When body cells require energy, what molecule is broken down?

ATP MOLECULE, dna molecule, 6-carbon molecule, adp molecule

The outer layer of the intestine is the:

mucosa, SEROSA, muscularis, submucosa

The Cricoid cartilage is a:

leaf-shaped cartilage lying on top of larynx, RING OF CARTILAGE FORMING THE INFERIOR WALLS OF THE LARYNX, pair of cone-shaped cartilage located at the apex of each arytenoid cart, tubular passageway for air

The passageway for foods and liquids into the digestive system and for air into the respiratory system is the:

trachea, larynx, PHARYNX, bronchus

The larynx is located between the:

PHARYNX & TRACHEA, nasal cavity & pharynx, trachea & bronchi, nasal & oral cavities

The vocal cords are located in the:

pharynx, LARYNX, trachea, bronchi

Which structure has three divisions consisting of naso, oro, and laryngeal?

trachea, larynx, PHARYNX, broncus

The function of the trachea is to:

CONDUCT AIR TO/FROM THE LUNGS, conduct air into the larynx, serve as a resonating chamber for speech, move the vocal cords

The space between the vocal cords is called the:

epiglottis, GLOTTIS, vocal fold, cricoid cartilage

The nasal cavity is divided into two portions by the:

ethmoid, SEPTUM, vomer, turbinates

The structure that drains excess tears to the nasal cavity, causing the nose to run is the:

nasopharynx, sinus cavities, NASOLACRIMAL DUCT, ciliary glands

The cartilaginous nasal septum lies upon which bone?

hyoid, VOMER, mandible, palatine

The structure that connects the middle ear and the throat, allowing the eardrum to vibrate freely, is the:

external auditory canal, EUSTACHIAN TUBE, semicircular canal, labyrinth

Another name for the tympanic membrane is the:

external ear canal, EARDRUM, semicircular canal, eustachian tube

The winding, cone-shaped tube of the inner ear is the:

semicircular canal, vestibule, COCHLEA, ampulla

The nasal sinus located between the nose and the orbits is the:

frontal sinus, sphenoid, ETHMOID, maxillary sinus

Which ossicle of the middle ear covers the oval window?

malleus, incus, STAPES, utricle

The large, leaf-shaped laryngeal cartilage that acts as a trap door over the larynx is the:

thyroid, cricoid, EPIGLOTTIS, oropharynx

Which part of the ear is responsible for equilibrium?

SEMICIRCULAR CANALS, middle ear, cochlea, meatus

A term referring to a waxy secretion in the external ear canal is:

pinna, aurum, CERUMEN, saccule

Which of the following structures is not an ossicle of the middle ear?

incus, VESTIBULE, stapes, malleus

The fluid within the membranous labyrinth is called?

perilymph, ENDOLYMPH, intralabyrinthine lymph, otolymph

In the physiology of hearing, sound waves collect in the _____ and pass on to hit the ____:

auricle, ossicles; ossicles, oval window; EXTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL, TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; ossicles, auricles

Striated-voluntary muscle tissue is found in the _____ muscle tissue.

visceral, heart, SKELETAL, cardiac

The white, tough layer of the eye that gives it its shape is the:

cornea, iris, SCLERA, choroid

The layer of the eye that is clear, covers the iris, and contains no blood vessels is the:

CORNEA, iris, sclera, choroid

The layer of the eye that absorbs light rays & nourishes the retina thru its numerous blood vessels is the:

sclera, ciliary body, CHOROID, iris

Which muscle alters the shape of the lens of the eye to accommodate near or far vision?

rectus muscle, oblique muscle, circular muscle, CILIARY MUSCLE

What structure regulates the amount of light entering the eye & assists in obtaining a clear image?

pupil, IRIS, cornea, retina

Intraocular pressure is primarily dependent on:

vitreous humor, AQUEOUS HUMOR, macula lutea, nerve impulses

At the junction of the sclera & cornea is a venous sinus know as the:

macula, uvea, CANAL OF SCHLEMM, glands of zeis

The smooth intrinsic muscle that alters the shape of the eye lens is the:

iris, CILIARY BODY, medial rectus, lateral rectus

The ciliary body is part of which layer of the eye:

fibrous, VASCULAR, nervous, lens

A capillary network of blood vessels within the renal cortex that functions as a filter is called the:

loop of henle, renal papillae, GLOMERULUS, segmental arteries

The triangular area of the bladder that is formed by the two openings of the ureters and the opening of the urethra is known as the:

TRIGONE, detrusor, apex, rugae

Gerota's fascia is located:

around the bladder, within the kidney medulla, AROUND THE KIDNEY, within the bladder

The kidneys are positioned:

intraperitoneally, RETROPERITONEALLY, in front of the parietal peritoneum, in back of the visceral peritoneum

The functional unit of the kidney responsible for removing waste & regulating fluid is the:

cortex, medulla, NEPHRON, renal pelvis

The most abundant extracellular ion necessary for the transmission of impulses is:

SODIUM, calcium, magnesium, phosphate

The prostate gland secretes:

AKALINE FLUID, semen, testosteron, inhibin

The first step of urine production in which fluids & dissolved substances are forced thru a membrane by pressure is called:

tubular secretion, tubular reabsorption, GLOMERULAR FILTRATION, urea recycling

Sperm are produced by the:

SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, tubular reabsorption, glomerular filtration, irea recycling

The cup-like extensions of the kidney pelvis that collect urine from the pyramids are:

CALYCES, papillae, columns, parenchyma

The notch on the kidney thru which the ureters exit is the:

HILUM, capsule, calyx, cortex

Which of the following is the principal male hormone produced in the testes & responsible for sexual characteristics?

inhibin, progesterone, TESTOSTERONE, prolactin

The comma-shaped organ that lies along the posterior border of the testis is the:

EPIDIDYMIS, vas deferns, ejaculatory duct, tunica vaginalis

The only artery in the body that carries unoxygenated blood is the:

superior vena cava, coronary artery, PULMONARY ARTERY, thoracic aorta

The pacemaker of the heart is the:

SA NODE, av node, purkinje fibers, bundle of his

Which arteries are formed by the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta?

renal, jugular, ILIAC, femoral

The process by which blood cells are formed is known as:

erythropoiesis, HEMOPOIESIS, diapedesis, leukocytosis

Which of the following arises from the left ventricle?

pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, AORTA, superior vena cava

The pancreas lies behind the stomach and duodenum in the right & left upper quadrants & is divided into _____ portions.

two, THREE, four, five

Which organ is responsible for the synthesis of many of the coagulation factors:

LIVER, spleen, thymus, pancreas

The atrioventricular (AV) valve between the left atrium & the left ventricle is the:

BUCUSPID, tricuspid, pulmonary semilunar, aortic semilunar

The inner layer of an artery is known as the:

adventitia, media, INTIMA, lamina

Which of the following vessels arises from the right ventricle?

PULMONARY ARTERY, pulmonary vein, aorta, hepatic artery

Which of the following vessels do not empty into the right atrium?

inferior vena cava, PULMONARY VEINS, coronary sinus, fossa ovalis

The large artery found behind the knee is the:

femoral, POPLITEAL, celiac, posterior tibial

The large artery that arises from the left side of the aortic arch & descends into the arm is the:

SUBCLAVIAN, carotid, brachiocephalic, vertebral

The medial malleolus is part of which bone?

fibula, TIBIA, talus, calcaneus

The sutures of the skull are examples of:

SYNARTHROSIS, amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis, synchondrosis

Which characteristic does not belong to a synovial joint?

articular cartilage, joint capsule & cavity, SYNCHONDROSIS CONTAINING HYALINE CARTILAGE, freely movable joint

Which of the following is an example of a saddle joint?

radius & carpals, THUMB & TRAPEZIUM, femur & hip, ulna & radius

Smooth, sustained contractions produced by several very rapid stimuli are called:

twitches, TETANUS, treppe, active tension

The dense white fibrous covering around the bone is the:

endosteum, medullary canal, PERIOSTEUM, intramembranous

An example of a short bone is the:

leg, WRIST, rib, kneecap

A large, bony process found on the femur is a:

TROCHANTER, tubercle, condyle, olecranon

The foramen magnum is found in which bone?

parietal, OCCIPITAL, temporal, sphenoid

An example of a flat bone is the:

wrist, vertebrae, CRANIAL BONES, facial bones

The acromion is part of which bone?

clavicle, SCAPULA, humerus, ulna

The olecranon is part of which bone?

humerus, radius, ULNA, scapula

Which of the following is not a carpal?

lunate, scaphoid, capitate, STYLOID

The only bone in the body that does not articulate with another is the:

mastoid, vomer, HYOID, spenoid

The shaft of a bone is known as the:

condyle, DIAPHYSIS, metaphysis, endosteum

The extremity or end of a bone is know as the:

EPIPHYSIS, diaphysis, periosteum, endosteum

Another name for spongy bone is:

CANCELLOUS, cortical, compact, callus

The vertebrae are examples of what type of bone?

IRREGULAR, short, flat, long

The area of a bone where growth occurs until early adulthood is the:

endosteum, medullary canal, EPIPHYSEAL PLATE, appositional growth

What bones form the greater portion of the sides & roof of the cranial cavity?

PARIETAL, frontal, occipital, temporal

The structure that serves as the socket for the head of the femur is the:

illium, ACETABULUM, pubis, ischium

Where are cruciate ligaments found in the knee?

LATERAL & MEDIAL IN THE KNEE, withing the condylar notch, anterior & posterior in the knee, between the tibial & femoral condyles

A triangular muscle that abducts the arm & covers the shoulder is the:

latissimus, DELTOID, trapezius, rhomboideus

The rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis & the vastus intermedius are muscles that extend the legs & are known as the:

QUADRICEPS, peroneus longus, hamstrings, adductor longus

The muscle that flexes & supinates the forearm & covers the anterior portion of the upper arm is the:

teres major, BICEPS BRACHII, flexor radialis, deltoid

The muscle that forms the bulk of the upper calf is the:

quadriceps, hamstrings, GASTROCNEMIUS, biceps femoris

The mandible articulates with the:

maxillae, TEMPORAL BONE, molars, zygomatic

The thoracic spine contains how many vertebrae?

5, 7, 9, ~12~

The inner lining of the uterus is the:

exometrium, myometrium, ENDOMETRIUM, perimetrium

The walls of the vagina are lined with:

MUCOUS MEMBRANE, peritoneum, fascia, serous membrane

All of the following ligaments maintain the position of the uterus except the:

broad ligament, OVARIAN LIGAMENT, round ligament, cardinal ligament

The perineum is the:

region anterior to the clitoris, AREA BETWEEN THE VAGINA & THE ANUS, covering of the abdominal cavity, region anterior to the vagina & urethral openings

Fertilization of the ovum generally occurs in the:

FALLOPIAN TUBES, uterus, ovaries, vagina

The hormone responsible for the development & maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics is:

ESTROGEN, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, inhibin

The structure that provides an exchange of nutrients & wastes between the fetus & mother & secretes the hormones necessary to maintain the pregnancy is:

amniotic fluid, PLACENTA, umbilical cord, endometrium

In the ovary, a granular yellow body that develops after the extrusion of the ovum is the:

graafian follicle, CORPUS LUTEUM, stroma, tunica albuginea

The finger-like projections on the end of the fallopian tubes are:

mesovarium, infundibulum, FIMBRIAE, isthmi

The funnel-shaped open distal end of each fallopian tube is called a/an:

fimbriae, INFUNDIBULUM, ampulla, isthmus

The portion of the uterus above the level of the uterine tubes is called the:

body, isthmus, FUNDUS, cervix

The elevated adipose tissue over the symphysis is called the:

MONS PUBIS, labia majors, perineum, vestibule

The ovary is attached to the uterus by the:

mesovarium, OVARIAN LIGAMENT, suspensory ligament, broad ligament

The middle layer of the uterus composed of muscle is the:

exometruim, MYOMETRIUM, endometrium, perimetrium

The outermost covering of the brain & spinal cord is the:

arachnois, DURA MATER, pia mater, pons

The brain contains four fluid-filled spaces called the:

VENTRICLES, auricles, fissures, sulci

The area of the brain that controls respiration is the:

cerebellum, pons, MEDULLA OBLONGATA, cerebrum

All thought takes place in the:

midbrain, CEREBRAL CORTEX, cerebellum, pons

The basic unit of the nervous system is the:

NEURON, axon, dendrite, ion

The cranial nerve that contains special fibers for hearing as well as for balance is:

V, ~ VIII ~, XI, XII

The peripheral nervous system contains:

brain & spinal cord, CRANIAL & SPINAL NERVES, spinal cord & spinal nerves, cranial nerves & spinal cord

Muscle tone, coordination of voluntary muscles, & balance are controlled in the:

CEREBELLUM, cerebrum, pons, medulla

The largest part of the brain is the:

cerebellum, CEREBRUM, pons, hyothalamus

Which cranial nerve emerges from the medula, passes thru the skull & descends thru the neck region into the thorax & abdominal region?

IX, ~ X ~ , XI, XII

The cranial nerve that carries motor fibers to the tongue & sensory impulses from the tongue to the brain is the:

glossopharyngeal, HYPOGLOSSAL, facial, olfactory

Which cranial nerve can be tested for sensation of pain, touch & temperature with the use of a safety pin & hot & cold objects?

IV, ~ V ~ , VII, VIII

Which cranial nerve carries impulses for sense of smell?

~ I ~, II, III, IV

Neurons that conduct impulses to the cardiac muscles are part of the:

central nervous system, AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM, afferent system, somatic system

The contractions of involuntary muscles are controlled by the:

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM, sympathetic nervous system, central nervous system, somatic nervous system

The neuroglia are cells that:

SUPPORT & PROTECT, conduct impulses, are only found outside the central nervous system, convey visceral information

The cytoplasmic process of a neuron that conducts impulses away from the cell body is a/an:

ganglion, dendrite, nissl body, AXON

The part of the brain that is a continuation of the spinal cord & forms the inferior portion of the brain stem is the:

pons, MEDULLA, midbrain, hypothalmus

Which area of the brain produces subconscious skeletal muscle movements required for coordination & balance?

cerebrum, CEREBELLUM, midbrain, medulla

The fifth cranial nerve is also called the :

vagus nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, TRIGERMINAL NERVE, trochlear

Which of the following neuroglia are star shaped & attach neurons to their blood vessels?

ependyma, oligodendroglia, microglia, ASTROCYTES

Where is cerebrospinal fluid formed?

cerebellum, superior sagittal sinus, VENTRICLES, auricles

The diencephalon in composed of the:

pons & midbrain, medulla & insula, THALAMUS & HYPOTHALAMUS, midbran & thalamus

The wisp-like roots of the nerves at the end of the spinal cord are called the:

conus medullaris, filum terminale, CAUDA EQUINA, median fissure

Neuron axons that are surrounded by a multilayer, white, phospholipid, segmented covering are called:

gray matter, MYELINATED NEURONS, neurofibrils, nissl bodies

Chemicals released by neurons to increase or inhibit impulses are called:

polarizers, NEUROTRANSMITTERS, regenerators, synapse

The bridge con necting the spinal cord with the brain is the:

brain stem, PONS, midbrain, diecephalon

The inner lining of the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract is composed of:

muscle, areolar tissue, EPITHELIUM, sertoli's cells

Ninety-six percent of the body's mass is made up of:

OXYGEN, CARBON, HYDROGEN & NITROGEN, oxygen, potassium, hydrogen & sulfur; oxygen, carbon, phosphorus & magnesium; oxygen, carbon, magnesium & sodium

The essential component of hemoglobin is:

oxygen, IRON, nitrogen, hydrogen

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