believed a motionless earth was the center of the universe; said air, fire, water, and earth were the only four elements; backed by the church
clergy man and astronomer; agreed with idea of a sun centered universe; for fear of ridicule he didn't publish until the year of his death.
agreed with Copernicus; leading astronomer in Europe due to his observations of a star; limited math skills
Brahe's assistant; established 3 laws:
1. orbits around the sun are eliptical.
2. Plantets don't move at a uniform speed.
3. Time a planet takes to make an orbit around the sun is related to its distance from the sun.
a profesor in mathematics; Law of Inertia; made the best telescope at the time; with that telescope he discovered that the moon had inequalities and that there was no heaven out there.
very religious; combined Copernicus' astronomy, corrected by Kepler, and the physics of Galilei.
english politician, writer, and propagandist; believed new knowledge needed to be pursued through experimental research.
frech philosopher; thought you should doubt everything that could be, then use deductive reasoning from self evident principle to make laws.
french; made science entertaining; wrote a book about how each star might be a different world.
french refugee; despised the king; believed open minded toleration was humanitys best hope.
french; edited encylapedia; thought common people were bound to superstition and condfusion.
worte ammusing letters written by travelers wo see European customs in a unique way, and thus critisizing.
imrisoned for insulting refent of France exiled to England.
Gabrille-Emilie de Breteuil
woman; passion for science; invited Voltaire to come live with her; published scientific articles; said that if she ruled she would educate women.
edited encylopedia; set out to teach people how to think critically and objectivley
German born, French educated; argued humans were machines completley determined by outside forces.
d'Holbach's associate; human mind is only a bundle of impressions, these impressions orginate only in sense experinces and our habits of joining these experiences together.
Swiss; believed everyone was plotting against him; wrote book on political theory and how the general will is popular sovereignty.
Frederick the Great;he embraced culture and literature; conquered Habsbura (Maria Theresa's land); saved when Peter III (Russia), who admired Frederick, called of the attack; allowed people to believe as they wish; promoted advancement of knowledge, agriculture, industry, and made torturing prisoners illegal; didn't give Jews rights.
determined to regain her land; made alliance with France and Russia; tried to limed the papacy's political infulence; revamped tax system so even the nobles land was being taxed.
Catherine the Great
Russia; wanted to bring sophisticated culture to Russia, better reforms.
son of Maria Theresa; granted religious toleration and civic rights to protestants and jews; abolished serfdom; all peasant labor be converted into cash.
had to cancel Joseph's radical edicits to re-establish order.