APUSH Chapter 25

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Louis Sullivan

Chicago architect; contributed to development of skyscrapers; "form follows function"; helped make sky scrapers popular

Walking Cities

cities in which more people walked since in this era, there were other forms of transit (ex. Electric trolleys) that would allow mass transportation; leg-power was limited and transits gave more freedom to do more

Departments Stores

attracted urban middle class-shoppers and provided working-class jobs (many for women); consumerism and showed class division; examples are Macy's and Marshall Field's

Tenements

slums; an area in which many people lived together in small quarters

Birds of Passage

those who worked in America for a number of years and after earning a decent amount of money, they would travel back to their home country

Padrone

labor boss; met immigrants and secured jobs wherever there was a demand for industrial labor; could speak both Italian and English; often gave homes to newcomers

Political Bosses

gave assistance to immigrants by trading jobs and services for votes; provided jobs on city's payroll, found housing for new arrivals, gave needy gifts of foods and clothing, etc.

Social Gospel

where the church take on social issues; science of society and that socialism would be the logical outcome of Christianity

Jane Addams

had a college education; used her talents to teach and do volunteer work, Hull house (American settlement home); condemned war and poverty; won Nobel Peace Prize in 1931

Hull House

run by Jane Addams; American settlement home; located in a poor area but gave help to the poor in English; child-care, adjustment to big-city life, cultural activities

Settlement houses

helped immigrants get accustomed to life in a new place; center of women's activism and social reform (ex. lobbied for antisweat shop law)

Lillian Wald

Henry Street Settlement in New York; founded a settlement house after following Addams's example

Florence Kelly

fought for welfare of women, children, blacks and consumers; moved to Henry Street Settlement ; served 30 years as a general secretary of the National Consumer League

Nativist

people who were against foreigners

Anglo-Saxon

white people; more northern Europeans

American Protective Association

antiforeign organization; urged voting against Roman Catholic candidates for office and sponsored publication of lustful fantasies about runaway nuns

Statue of Liberty

built in 1886; located in New York harbor as a gift from France

Dwight Lyman Moody

urban revivalist; once a shoe salesman; spoke to audiences about forgiveness

Cardinal Gibbons

urban Catholic leader; devoted to American unity; popular with Roman Catholics and Protestants; used his liberal sympathy to help the American labor movement

Salvation Army

a new denomination of religion that came from England; gave out free soup

Mary Baker Eddy

founded the Church of Christ; wrote a book called Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures

YMCA:

Young Men's and Women's Christian Associations; established before Civil war and combined physical and other kinds of education with religious teachings.

Charles Darwin

English naturalists who wrote Origin of Species; thought higher forms of life evolved from lower forms through mutation and adaptation; came up with the theory of natural selection

Origin of Species

book written by Charles Darwin that talked about natural selection and explained his theories

Fundamentalists

those who rejected Darwin's beliefs

Modernists

those who accepted Darwin's beliefs as well as Christianity

Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll

skeptical about religion; an orator (And his name isn't mentioned...)

Normal Schools

teacher-training schools

Kindergarten

a concept that came from Germany; younger children went to schools earlier in life

Chautauqua

made education available to adults

Booker T. Washington

ex-slave; worked hard to go to school; became the head of a normal and industrial school at Tuskegee, Alabama in a really crappy shack; taught useful trades (in order to gain self-respect and economic security); believed that one should make themselves useful in order to go against white supremacy

Tuskegee Institute

run by Booker T. Washington; taught blacks useful trades

Accommodationists

belief that one should make themselves equally useful in order to combat racism; did not directly challenge white supremacy; believed that blacks should remain in black communities and become economically independent from whites in order to achieve political stature and civil rights

George Washington Carver

taught at Tuskegee Institute; discovered hundreds of uses for the peanut and other agricultural items that helped the southern economy

W.E.B. Du Bois

disagreed with Booker T. Washinton; earned a Ph. D. at Harvard (the first blackish person to do so); demanded complete equality for blacks, both socially and economically; helped found the NAACP; demanded that the talented tenth of the black community be given full as well as immediate access to the mainstream of American life; died as a self-exile in Africa

NAACP

National Association for the Advancement of Color people; founded by W.E.B. Du Bois in order to achieve complete equality for blacks

Vassar

college for women

Howard

black institute in Washington D.C.

Morrill Act

passed in 1862; gave a generous grant of public land to states for education

Land Grant Colleges

most of the land given from the Morrill Act became these types of schools; usually state universities

Hatch Act

expanded on the Morrill Act; provided federal funds for the establishment of agricultural experiment stations with the land-grant colleges

Williams James

worked for 35 years on the Harvard faculty; used writings to influence many people; wrote Principles of Psychology -- helped establish the modern discipline of behavioral psychology; The Will to Believe & Varieties of Religious Experience - explored philosophy and psychology of religion; Pragmatism (Most famous work) - described America's greatest contribution to the history of philosophy [pragmatism: the thought that the truth of an idea should be tested by practical consequence]

Joseph Pulitzer

born in Hungary and nearly blind; leader in sensationalism; Colored comic supplements featured the "Yellow Kid" (became yellow journalism)

William Randolph Hearst

expelled from Harvard for a crude prank; had father's California mine millions and began a power chain of newspaper (San Francisco Examiner); close competitor of Pulitzer;

Yellow Journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

Edwin L. Godkin

launched the Nation, a liberal and intellectual journal; Irish born; critic; crusaded for civil-service reform; honest government and moderate tariff; believed that if he could reach the right amount of small people ideas could reach to many more people

Henry George

journalist-author; didn't have much formal school but had much idealism and human kindness; wrote Progress and Poverty; said that the pressure of growing population on a fixed suplly of land pushed up property values and gave unearned profits on owners of land; a one time, 100 % tax on those profits would get rid of unfair inequalities and stimulate economic growth

Edward Bellamy

from Massachusetts; journalist-reformer; published socialistic novel: Looking Backward in which the main character 'looks back' and sees that the government has become ideal in the year 2000 and big business became nationalized to serve public interest; clubs formed under his name and heavily influenced American reform movement at the end of the century

Dime novels

short paperback novels about the West

Horatio Alger

"Holy Horatio"; born a Puritan and interested in New York newsboys; formula: virtue, honesty, and industry are rewarded by success, wealth and honor (survival of the purest - nonsmokers, nondrinkers, nonswearers, and nonliars)

Walt Whitman

poet; wrote Leaves of Grass; inspired by Lincoln's death to write "O Captain! My Captain!" and "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd."

Emily Dickinson

poet; poetry wasn't published when she was alive (only two were and those were without her consent); wrote over a thousand short lyrics on scarps of paper

Kate Chopin

feminist author; wrote The Awakening (about adultery, suicide, and women's ambitions); ignored in her day but rediscovered by later readers

Mark Twain

wrote The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, The Innocents Abroad, and The Gilded Age; hardly had any formal schooling in Missouri; real name Samuel Langhorne Clemens; also wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; captured frontier realism and humor with American dialect

Bret Harte

author from the west; wrote gold-rush stories like "The Luck of Roaring Camp" and "The Outcasts of Poker Flat"; never matched up to his pervious fame

William Dean Howells

the son of a printer from Ohio; had little school; became editor in chief of the Atlantic Monthly; presented honorary degrees from six universities (including Oxford!); wrote about ordinary people and contemporary/controversial social themes (ex. A Modern Instance - about divorce; The Rise of Silas Lapham - trials of a paint manufacturer in caste system of Brahmin Boston; A Hazard of New Fortunes - reformers, strikers, and socialists in the Gilded Age New York

Stephen Crane

14th son of a Methodist minister; wrote about underside of urban, industrial life America (Maggie: A Girl of the Streets - story of a poor prostitute who ended up committing suicide [Didn't find a publisher for this story and was published privately]; The Red Badge of Courage - Civil War Recruit under fire); died of tuberculosis

Henry James

grandson of John Quincy Adams and great grandson of John Adams; wrote History of the United States During the Administrations of Jefferson and Madison; defended his heritage; also wrote Monti-Stain-Michel and Chartres and a autobiography of his education and the account of his failures; for his novels, he made women his central characters; called a master of "psychological" ;The Bostonians was the first book about the rising feminist movement

Jack London

famous for nature writing; wrote Call of the Wild and The Iron Heel

Frank Norris

wrote The Octopus - saga of the stranglehold of the railroad and corrupt politician on California wheat rancher; its sequel, The Pit, dealt with the making and breaking of speculators on the Chicago wheat exchange

Paul Laurence Dunbar

black writer; poet; wrote Lyrics of Lowly Life; brought a new kind of realism

Charles W. Chestnut

black writer; fiction writer; wrote short stories in Atlantic Monthly and The Conjure Women; used black dialect and folklore to capture richness of southern black culture

Theodore Dreiser

"social novelist"; from Indiana; wrote Sister Carrie (poor working girl in Chicago and New York, becomes mistress, elopes with someone else, makes an acting career)

Victoria Woodhull

believed in free love; divorcee, occasional stockbroker, feminist propagandist; with her sister she published Woodhull and Claflin's Weekly; journal charged that Henry Ward Beecher (famous preacher of the time) that he was having an adulterous affair

Anthony Cornstock

crusader against immoral; defender of sexual purity; drove 15 people to suicide

Carrie Chapman Catt

pragmatic and businesslike reformer for women's rights; women didn't not emphasized as much that they deserved the vote as a right since there were equals of men; stressed that women should be allowed to vote because they were responsible for health of the family and education of the kids

National Women Suffrage Association

fought for white woman's right to vote; excluded black women since it would be pushing their luck and gave limited membership to whites

Ida B. Wells

journalist and teacher; inspired black women to start a nationwide antilynching crusade; helped launch black women's club movement - National Association of Colored Women

Women's Christian Temperance Union

group of women that fought for temperance

Carrie Nation

"Kansas Cyclone"; 1st husband died of alchoholism and so she took a hatchet and single-handedly destroyed saloons

Anti-Saloon League

a group that wanted prohibition

18th Amendment

passed in 1919; prohibition amendment

Clara Barton

launched the Red Cross

James Whistler

artist from Massachusetts who did much of his work in England; known for a portrait of his mother; dropped out of West Point after failing chemistry

John Singer Sargent

American painter in England; drew flattering but superficial likeness to British nobility that made him "highly prized"

Mary Cassatt

American painter in Paris; painted sensitive portrayals of women and children - earned a place among French impressionist painters

George Inness

self taught; became America's leading landscapist

Thomas Eakins

got a high degree of realism in his paintings (meaning portrait sitters got their flaws in pictures)

Winslow Horner

painter who was resistant against foreign influences and brought rugged realism and boldness of conception; known for paintings of the sea

Augustus Saint-Gaudens

born to an Irish mother and French father; adopted American; most gifted American sculptor one of his most moving works is the Robert Gould Shaw memorial

Metropolitan Opera House

1883; brought European music to elite American audiences; "Diamond Horseshoe"

Henry H. Richardson

born in Louisiana and educated at Harvard and Paris; architect, distinctive, ornamental style; style called Richardsonian; high vaulted arches; Marshall Fields in Chicago

Colombian Exposition

held in 1893 in Chicago; honored 400th anniversary of Columbus's first voyage; revival of classical architecture in order to celebrate

Vaudeville

jokes and acrobats; shows for entertainments

P.T. Barnum

master showman who jointed with Bailey to have the "Greatest Show on Earth" - a circus

Buffalo Bill Cody

most popular of the Wild-West shows; the troupe included Indians, live buffalo, and marksmen

Annie Oakley

part of the Buffalo Bill Cody show; an extremely good shooter

James Naismith

invented basketball in 1888

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