AP Biology Unit 5 (Chapter 9+10)

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Product

Chance of any 2+ events occuring is the _______ of their separate possibilities

Gene

part of chromosome that controls expression of a trait

Allele

member of a gene pair - not necessarily the same expression of a trait

Dominant

trait that will be expressed phenotypically

Recessive

trait that will be masked; won't affect phenotype

Homozygous

letters in a gene pair are both dominant or both recessive

Heterozygous

gene pair has one dominant and one recessive

Monohybrid

type of cross that crosses only one trait from the mom and dad

Test

type of cross done to see if a dominant phenotype is homo/heterozygous; R? x rr; only takes 1 recessive phenotype to prove that ? is r

Co-Dominance

when the heterozygote is its own phenotype of a trait somewhere between the two extremes

Multiple Alleles

blood type is prime example of this idea; when there are more than 2 alleles to choose from

Sex-linked

a trait that is linked to the x chromosome, so is passed on depending on gender

XY

Male chromosome (2 letters)

XX

Female chromosome (2 letters)

Dihybrid

type of cross that crosses more than one trait

Linked

if two traits are _____ it means they are usually on the same chromosome so their phenotypes often show up together

Map units

# of cross overs/ total offspring=percent cross over, which also tells us how many ______ apart the linked traits are

Epistasis

when one gene affects the expression of another

Pleiotrophy

when one gene has several effects

Polygenes

when several genes interact contributing to the expression of a characteristic; creates a range of phenotypes

Skin color

prime example of polygenes

Influence

the idea that some traits will be expressed differently depending on gender; ex: baldness (dominant in males, recessive in females)

Pedigree

way of writing family genetic histories using universal symbols

Nature vs. Nurture

name for the debate that questions if genetics or the environment a person is raised in has a bigger effect on their traits

double helix

name for structure of DNA

Nucleotides

DNA is a chain of _____

Purines

bases A + G; larger, have two rings

Pyrimidines

bases T + C; smaller, have 1 ring

A

Complement of T

T

Complement of A

G

Complement of C

C

Complement of G

Helicase

enzyme used to unwind the helix for replication

Primase

enzyme that adds primer molecule for replication

DNA Polymerase

enzyme that brings in free nucleotides to the right spaces for DNA replication

Ligases

enzyme that fuses DNA segments

Semi-conservative

method of replication that implies that each new strand of DNA is half original and half new

Leading

strand that is more quickly formed in continuous flow; 5-3 direction

Lagging

strand that is assembled in 3-5 direction in short pieces, which each need a primer

Okazaki fragments

name for small pieces of DNA joined by ligase enzymes on the laggin strand

Telomeres

long pieces at the end of chromosomes that do not have necessary information; get shorter as person gets older

U

base A is complemented with base ____ when it is translated to mRNA

False

True or False: Because prokaryotes don't need telomeres, they never die.

Transcription

process where DNA copies onto mRNA; DNA determines sequence of mRNA

Translation

happens in cytoplasm at ribosomes; mRNA codes for tRNA which builds one amino acid a time to make an enzyme

SSSB

Mr. Peri's way to remember differences between RNA and DNA

Retroviruses

insert genes into host cell and take over; use reverse transcriptase

Mutation

random change in genetic information

Chromosomal

type of mutation that happens in meiosis; chromosomes are switched or forgotten

Substitution

mutation when one base is exchanged for another; less harmful

Addition/Deletion

mutation when a base is added or removed; more harmful, changes the rest of the line of bases

Radiation

one cause of mutations; can be ionizing or non-ionizing

Codon

a set of three bases on mRNA that determines amino acid

Anti-codon

set of three bases on tRNA that complements mRNA and determines amino acid

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