Ph Ch 1- Define Scientific method
Principles and procedures for the systematic pursuit of knowledge involving the recognition and formulation of a problem, the collection of data through observation and experiment, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses
Ph Ch 1- Define hypothesis
an educated guess; a reasonable explanation of an observation or experimental result that is not fully accepted as factual until tested over and over again by experiment
Ph Ch 1- Define fact
a phenomenon about which competent observers who have made a series of observations are in agreement
Ph Ch 1- Define law
a general hypothesis or statement about the relationship of natural quantities that has been tested over and over again and has not been contradicted. Also known as a principle
Ph Ch 1- Define theory
a synthesis of a large body of information that encompasses well-tested and verified hypotheses about certain aspects of the natural world
Ph Ch 1- 1.1 What is the role of equations in this course?
to provide compact expressions of relationships between concepts
Ph Ch 1- 1.2 What are the circular spots of light seen on the ground beneath a tree on a sunny day?
pinhole images of the son
Ph Ch 1- 1.3 Outline the steps of the classic scientific method
Observe; question; predict; test predictions; draw conclusion
Ph Ch 1- 1.4 Distinguish between a scientific fact and a scientific law.
A fact is a close agreement by competent observers who make a series of observations about the same phenomenon. A law is when a hypothesis has been tested over and over again and has not been contradicted
Ph Ch 1- 1.4 How is a scientific theory different from a theory, as used in everyday speech?
everyday speech it means an "idea" in science it means it has been well tested and verified the hypotheses
Ph Ch 1- 1.4 In daily life, people are often praised for maintaining some particular point of view, for the "courage of their convictions." A change of mind is seen as a sign of weakness. how is this different in science?
scientists must be willing to change their minds and only when confronted w/ solid experimental evidence or when a conceptually simpler hypotheses forces them to a new point of view.
Ph Ch 1- 1.4 What is the test for whether a hypothesis is scientific or not?
Look for ways to prove it wrong, if there is no way to prove the hypothesis wrong then it is not a scientific hypothesis.
Ph Ch 1- 1.4 In daily life, we see many cases of people who are caught misrepresenting things and who soon thereafter are excused and accepted by their contemporaries. How is this different in science?
The penalty for science fraud is professional excommunication
Ph Ch 1- 1.4 What test can you perform to increase the chance in your own mind that you are right about a particular idea?
by being informed on the topic and making sure you understand completely the opposing view on the same topic
Ph Ch 1- 1.5 Cite a reason for encouraging students of the arts to learn about science, and for encouraging science students to learn about the arts.
a knowledge of both the sciences and the arts makes for a wholeness that affects the way we view the world and the decisions that we make about it and for ourselves
Ph Ch 1- 1.5 Why do many people believe they must choose between science and religion?
because religion requires faith science requires experiments and the possibility that previous beliefs were wrong
Ph Ch 1- 1.5 Psychological comfort is a benefit of having solid answers to religious questions. What benefit accompanies a position of not knowing the answers the answers?
A closed mind doesnt want to question things. They want one solid answer and desire to stick w/ that answer. A scientific mind is comfortable w/ uncertainty because science is never truly absolute. A hypothesis can always be proven wrong in the future
Ph Ch 1- 1.6 Clearly distinguish between science and technology.
Science is concerned w/ gathering knowledge and organizing it. Technology lets humans use that knowledge for practical purposes, and it provided the tools needed by scientists in their further explorations