Chapter 5 Electrons in atoms

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3.00 x 10^8 m/s

At what speed does ALL electromagnetic radiation travel?

electromagnetic spectrum

all forms of electromagnetic radiation

alpha rays, gamma rays and x-rays

Which kind of electromagnetic radiation has the highest frequency?

radio waves, tv, FM waves

Which kind of electromagnetic radiation has the lowest frequency?

alpha rays, gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, microwaves, radar, radio waves, television, FM waves, short waves, long waves

Name three kinds of electromagnetic radiation.

electromagnetic radiation

forms of energy that have wavelike behavior as they travel through space

wavelength

distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves

frequency

number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time period, like one second

amplitude

distance from the origin to the crest of a wave or from the origin to the trough of a wave

C = (lambda) (nu)

What is the relationship between frequency and wavelength for electromagnetic radiation?

frequency increases

What happens when a wavelength decreases?

frequency decreases

What happens when a wavelength increases?

wavelength increases

What happens when frequency decreases?

wavelength decreases

What happens when frequency increases?

photoelectric effect

when photoelectrons are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency or higher shines on the surface of that metal

Max Planck

Who discovered the photoelectric effect?

separates into individual colors

What happens when white light is passed through a prism?

6.0 x 10^10 Hz

A form of energy has a wavelength of 5.0 x 10^-3 meters. What is the frequency of the energy?

quantum

minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom

Planck's constant

h = 6.626 x 10^-34 Joules per second

photon

massless paricle that carries a quantum of energy

E = hv

What is the relationship between the energy emitted and its frequency?

4.19 x 10^-13 Joules

How much energy does a photon with a frequency of 6.32 c 10^20 Hz have?

6.29 x 10^-20 Joules

How much energy does a photon with a frequency of 9.50 x 10^13 Hz have?

6.96 x 10^-18 Joules

How much energy does a photon with a frequency of 1.05 x 10^16 s^-1 have?

4.42 x 10^-17 Joules

The blue color in some fireworks occurs when copper(i) chloride is heated to approximately 1500 K and emits blue light of wavelength 4.50 x 10^2 nm. How much energy does one photon of this light carry?

atomic emission spectrum

set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of the element

absorption spectrum

set of frequencies of electromagnetic waves that an atom's electrons absorb

ground state

lowest allowable energy state of an atom's electrons

excited state

atom with electrons that have gained energy

quantum number

n; the number assigned to each orbit(energy level) of an atom

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

states that it is fundamentally impossible to know the precise location AND velocity of an electron (particle) at the same time

quantum mechanical model of the atom

an atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves

atomic orbital

3-D region around the nucleus where electrons can be found

principal quantum number

energy level; how far the electrons are from the nucleus of an atom

energy sublevel

energy levels contained within a principal energy level

1 (s)

How many orbitals are in the first principal energy level?

Lyman series

Which series uses ultraviolet light to create line emission spectrum?

Paschen series

WHich series uses infrared light to create line emission spectrum?

Balmer series

Which series uses visible light to create a line emission spectrum?

orbit

In the Bohr model it is the path that electrons circle the nucleus in

if enough energy is gained in a photon it moves out to a higher energy level

What happens to an electron when it gains energy?

2

How many total electrons in the first principal energy level?

8

How many total electrons in the second principal energy level?

18

How many total electrons in the third principal energy level?

32

How many total electrons in the fourth principal energy level?

50

How many total electrons in the fifth principal energy level?

72

How many total electrons in the sixth principal energy level?

98

How many total electrons in the seventh principal energy level?

2n^2

How do you calculate the total number of electrons per energy level?

n^2

How do you calculate the total number of orbitals per energy level?

energy and distance from nucleus increase

What happens to energy as the principal quantum number increases?

He mathematically determined the probability of finding electrons in certain places around the nucleus

What did Erwin Schrodinger do for atomic theory?

quantum number

What does n stand for?

2 (s & p)

How many orbitals are in the second principal energy level?

3 (s, p, d)

How many orbitals are in the third principal energy level?

4 (s, p,d f)

How many orbitals are in the fourth principal energy level?

5 (s, p, d, f, g)

How many orbitals are in the fifth` principal energy level?

sphere

What is the shape of an s orbital?

dumbbell

What is the shape of a p orbital?

double-peanut

What is the shape of a d orbital?

flower

What is the shape of an f orbital?

1

How many s orbitals are there per energy level?

3

How many p orbitals are there per energy level?

5

How many d orbitals are there per energy level?

7

How many f orbitals are there per energy level?

9

How many g orbitals are there per energy level?

it emits a photon of energy and moves to a lower energy level closer to the nucleus

What happens when an electron loses energy?

model depicts hydrogen nucleus with a single electron circling in a specific orbit

Describe the Bohr model of a hydrogen atom.

only 2-D view and used only one electron instead of 2 or more

Why couldn't Bohr's model be used for all elements?

Aufbau principle

States that each electron occipies the lowest energy orbital available

Pauli exclusion principle

states that a maximum of two electrons can occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins

Hund's rule

states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy EACH equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbital

orbital notation

writing of electron configuration using circles or boxes to indicate principal energy levels and lines or arrows to indicate electrons

electron configuration

arrangement of electrons in an atom

electron configuration notation

using superscripts to indicate the number of electrons in each orbital at each principal level

noble-gas notation

shorthand method to write electron configuration using the preceding noble gas and then any electrons after the noble gas

valence electrons

electrons found in the outermost energy level

Lewis structure

using element's symbol and dots to indicate number of valence electrons

1s,2s,2p,3s,3p,4s,3d,4p,5s,4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p, 8s . .

What is the order for filling the orbitals, based on lowest energy level first?

far right column

Where are the noble gases found in the Periodic Table of elements?

[Kr]5s1

Write the noble-gas notation for rubidium.

[Ne]3s2

Write the noble-gas notation for magnesium.

[Ne]3s23p4

Write the noble-gas notation for sulfur.

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4

Write the electron configuration notation for sulfur.

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2

Write the electron configuration notation for calcium.

1s2

Write the electron configuration notation for helium.

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