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sterilization

process of destroying all microorganisms

sterile

the name given to any material that has been subjected to sterilzation

bactericide

a chemical that destroys bacteria except for those in the endospore stage

bacteriostatic

agents that prevent the growth of bacteria on tissues or objects in th environment

disinfection

refers to the use of a physical process or a chemical agent (a disinfectant) to destroy vegetative pathogens but not bacterial endospores

sepsis

the growth of microorganisms in the blood and other tissues

asepsis

any practice that prevents the entry of infectious agents into sterile tissues and thus prevents infection

antisepsis

chemical agents are applied directly to exposed body surfaces, wounds, and surgical incisions to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens

antiseptics

chemical agent used in antisepsis

sanitization

any cleansing technique that mechanically removes microorganisms as well as other debris to reduce contamination to safe levels

degermation

process used to reduce the numbers of microbes on the human skin

surfactants

compounds that lower the surface tension of cell membranes

denature

occurs when the bonds between secondary and tertiarystructure of the protein are broken

thermal death time

the shortest length of tie required to kill all test microbes at a specified temperature

thermal death point

the lowest temperature required to kill all microbes in a sample in 10 minutes

tyndallization

fractional sterilization designed to destroy spores indirectly. A preparation is exposed to slowing stream for an hour, and then the mineral is allowed to incubate to permit spore germination. the resultant vegetative cells are destroyed by repeated steaming and incubation

pasteurization

a technique in which heat is applied to liquids ti kill potential agents of infection and spoilage, while at the same time retaining the liquid's flavor and food value

thermoduric

resistant to the harmful effects of high temperatures

incineration

destruction of microbes by subjecting them to extremes of dry heat. Microbes are reduced to ashes and gas by this process

desiccated

dehydration; to dry thoroughly

lyophilization

a method of preserving microoganisms and other cells in a viable state for many years

radiation

energy emitted from atomic activities and dispersed at high velocity through matter or space

irradiation

bombardment with radiation at the cellular level

ionizing radiation

when the radiation ejects orbital electrons from an atom to cause ions of form

nonionizing radiation

excites atoms by raining them to a higher energy state, but it does not ionize them

cold (or low-temperature) sterilization

the use of nonheating methods such as radiation or filtration to sterilize materials

ultraviolet radiation (UV)

radiation with an effective wavelength from 240 nm to 260 nm. UV radiation induces mutations readily but has very poor penetrating power

pyrimidine dimers

the union of two adjacent pyrimides on the same DNA strand, brought about by exposure to UV light. It is a form of mutation

Iodophors

complexes of iodine and a neutral polymer such as a polyvinylalcohol

quarts

a word the pertains to a family of surfactants called quaternary ammonium compounds. These detergents are only weakly microbicidal and are used as sanitizers and preservatives

oligodynamic

the property of having antimicrobial effects in exceedingly small amounts

ethylene oxide

a colorless substance that exists as a gas at room temperature

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