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chemistry

the study of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter

physics

the study of matter and energy and the interactions between the two through forces and motion

geology

the study of the origin, history, and structure of the earth

astronomy

the study of the universe beyond earth, including the sun, moon, planets, and stars

biology

the study of the origin of living things

scientific method

an organized plan for gathering, organizing, and communicating information

observation

information that you obtain through your senses

hypothesis

a proposed answer to a question

manipulated variable

a variable that causes a change in another

responding variable

a variable that changes in response to the manipulated variable

controlled experiment

an experiment in which one variable, the manipulated variable, is deliberately changed at a time

scientific law

a statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature

model

representation of an object or event

volume

the amount of space taken up by an object

mass

the quantity of matter in an object or sample

length

the straight-line distance between two points

precision

a gauge of how exact a measurement is

significant figures

all the digits that are known in a measurement plus the last digit that is estimated

accuracy

the closeness of a measurement to the actual value of what is being measured

thermometer

an instrument that measures temperature or how hot an object is

slope

the ratio of a vertical change to the corresponding horizontal change

direct porportion

is a relationship in which the ratio of two variables is constant

inverse porportion

the product of two variables is constant

element

a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

atom

the smallest particle of an element

compound

a substance that is made from two or more simpler substances and can be broken down into simpler substances

heterogeneous mixture

the parts of the mixture are noticeably different from one another

homogeneous mixture

the substances are so evenly distributed that is difficult to distinguish one substance in the mixture from another

solution

when substances dissolve and form a homogeneous mixture

suspension

a heterogeneous mixture that seperates into layers over time

colloid

contains some particles that are intermediate in size between the small particles in a solution and the larger particles in a suspension

distillation

a process that seperates substances in a solution based on their boiling points

precipitate

any solid that forms and seperates from a liquid mixture

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