Chapter 16 Study Guide

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Important dates, vocabulary, and other facts over Western exploration.

1434

Portuguese exploration of African coast begins; led by Prince Henry the Navigator.

1497

Vasco de Gama reaches India.

1509

First Spanish colony on American mainland. (date)

1608

French settlement in Canada.

1652

Dutch establish colony in southern Africa.

1744

French-British wars in India begin; British won.

Cape of Good Hope

Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.

Christopher Colombus

Genoese captain in service of king and queen of Castile and Aragon; successfully sailed to New World and returned in 1492; initiated European discoveries in America.

Ferdinand Magellan

(1480-1521) Spanish captain who in 1519 initiated first circumnavigation of the globe; died during the voyage; allowed Spain to claim Philippines.

Dutch East India Company

Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in Asia; acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed.

British East India Company

Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in India; acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed.

Lepanto

Naval battle between the Spanish and the Ottoman Empire resulting in a Spanish victory in 1571.

core nations

Nations, usually European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international banking and commercial services such as shipping; exported manufactured goods for raw materials.

Vasco de Balboa

(1475-1519) first Spanish captain to begin settlement on the mainland of Mesoamerica in 1509; initial settlement eventually led to conquest of Aztec and Inca empires by other captains.

Francisco Pizzario

Led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535; by 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to the Spanish.

mercantilism

Economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe.

New France

French colonies in North America; extended from St. Lawrence River along Great Lakes and down Mississippi River valley system.

Seven Years War

Fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in India and North America.

Treaty of Paris

Arranged in 1763 following Seven Years War; granted New France to England in exchange for return of French sugar island in Caribbean.

Cape Colony

Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements has expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus.

Boers

Dutch settlers in Cape Colony, in southern Africa.

Calcutta

Headquarters of British East India Company in Bengal in Indian subcontinent; located on Ganges; captured in 1756 during early part of Seven Years War; later became administrative center for all of Bengal.

Henry the Navigator

Portuguese prince responsible for direction of series of expeditions along the African coast in the 15th century; marked beginning of western European expansion.

Vasco de Gama

Portuguese captain who sailed for India in 1497; established early Portuguese dominance in Indian Ocean.

Brazil.

Portugal claimed what land in the Americas?

Eastern Europeans traded grain for art and manufactured goods from Western Europeans.

What did Eastern Europeans trade with Western Europeans?

Calcutta.

What is the first known town in India to have a British East India Company?

Disease.

What was the biggest contribution of the Europeans to the Americas during the Colombian exchange?

Portugal.

Where did the first push for exploration and conquest come from?

Vikings.

Who crossed the Atlantic in the 10th century and named America Vinland?

China & India.

What countries were the largest recipients of New World Silver?

North America; French & British colonies

What colonies in the Americas would you find a fuller development of Western institutions and values?

Better climate for crops. (cash crops)

Why were southern colonies on the Atlantic Seaborg more important in the early part of settlement?

Angola.

What was the colony in Africa where Portugal did their slave expeditions?

The British were trying to find a northern arctic route to China and India.

What was the purpose of early expeditions to North America?

Brazil.

What part of South America does Spain not have anything to deal with?

Compass, deep draft ships, and gun powder for gunnery.

What were some technological developments in the West (England, France, Portugal, Spain) in the 15th century?

Philippines.

What land became part of Spain's empire because of Magellan's circumnavigation of the globe?

The British East India Company.

Who ruled India for much of the 15th century?

Gunnery.

What was Japan interested in from the West?

Panama.

What was the first Spanish colony on the American mainland?

Spain kept 1/5 of silver produced in it's colonies which they primarily used to trade for Asian goods.

How did silver help Spain dominate world trade?

Near Nagasaki.

What port did Dutch use in Japan?

A system of forced labor that would cost little even when the overall labor supply was precarious.

What is a coercive labor system?

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