why is the nervous system compared to air mail and the endocrine to pony express?
the nervous system uses rapid electric messages
the endocrine system uses the blood to travel
*what is a hormone?
a chemical substance liberated into the blood, which alters "target cells" metabolism in a specific manner.
*Chemically, hormones belong to two what groups?
steriods, and amino acid based molecules
what do all hormones have in common?
chemical molecules, target cells, travel through the blood, effective in minute quantities
*what is a target organ?
organ responding to a particular hormone in a specific way
.*ocation of thyroid gland?
*location of adrenal gland
*location of the pancreas
close to stomach and small intestine
*location of testis
*location of parathyroids?
ride horseback on the thyroid gland
*location of ovaries?
female pelvic cavity
*location of thymus?
upper thorax, overlying the heart
*pineal body location?
roof of the third ventricle
inadequite production of PTH will cause?
inadequite production of ADH will cause?
excessive diuresis without high blood glucose levels
inadequite production of insulin will cause?
loss of glucose in urine
inadequite production of growth hormone will cause?
abnormally small stature, normal proportions
inadequite production of thyoxine, triiodothyronine, thyroid hormone will cause?
lethargy, sluggish mentally and physically, hair loss, low metabolic rate
overproduction of growth hormone will cause?
large facial bones, hands, feet in the adult
overproduction of T3/T4 (thyriod hormone) will cause?
bulging eyeballs, nervousness, increased pulse rate, sweating
overproduction of PTH will cause?
deminerazation of bones, spontonaous fractures
parafollicular cells of the thyroid produce what hormone?
follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid produce what hormone?
beta cells of the pancreatic isolates produce what hormone?
alpha cells of the pancreatic isolates produce what hormone?
basophil cells of the interior pituitary produce what hormone?
TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH
zona fasculata cells produce what hormone?
zoma glomerulosa cells produce what hormone?
cheif cells produce what hormone?
acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary produce what hormone?
*programs T lymphocytes
thymosin, in the thymus
*regulates blood calcuim levels
calcitonin in the parathyroid glands, and, PTH in the thyroid
*released in response to stress
cortosone in the adrenal cortex, and, epinephine in the adrenal medulla
*drive development of secondary sexual characteristics
estrogens in the ovaries, and, testosterone in the testies
*regulate the function of another endocrine gland
ACTH, FSH, LH, TSH in the anterior pituitary
*mimicks the sympathetic nervous system
epinephrine in the adrenal medulla
*regulates blood glucose levels; produced by the same "mixed" gland
glucagon and insulin in the pancreas
*directly responsible for the regulation of the menstrual cycle
estrogen and progesterone in the ovaries
*mainenance of salt and water balance in extracellular fluid
ADH in the hypothalamus and aldosterone in the adrenal cortex
*directly involved in milk production and ejection
oxytocin in the hypothalamus and prolactin in the anterior pituitary gland
How does the hypothalumus control the pituitary?
it produces releasing and inhibiting hormones which control the production and release of anterior pitutary hormones; forms hormones ADH and oxytocin, which are transported to the posterior pituitary and later released on nervous stimulation from the hypothalumus.