the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
American: The war between the American colonies and Great Britain (1775-1783), leading to the formation of the independent United States.
Dual Revolution Theory
theory that the revolution was based off of not only the struggle to separate from the injustices of British Government but also to make the social classes of the United States more equal
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought, The theory that a country should sell more goods to other countries than it buys, the idea that the colony should benefit the mother country economically
Queen Anne's War
A contest among Europe's empire builders for territory, established England as the primary colonial power in North America
Treaty of Utrecht
England acquired Newfoundland, acadia, areas of hudson bay. Led to postway tensions with Native AMericans, Made england most powerful nation in North America
A law that imposed a tax on molasses, sugar, and rum imported from non-British foreign colonies into the North American colonies; it was aimed to reserve a monopoly of the colonies. This caused anger among colonials due to the fear of increased prices of rum, since they felt that the British West Indies could not meet the needs of the colonies.
Adam Smith/ Wealth of Nations
Rejected government interference with commerce and trade, rejected mercantilism
young militia captain who tried but failed to take over fort duquesne
franch fort in ohio valley. GWAsh tried to attack here, but failed
Only Native americans on the sides of the british
reps from NE, ny, penn, tried to develop a plan for defence from french, aalliance with the Iroquis. Nothing happened
British-commander in chief in in north america, was in charge during battle at Fort Duquesne, "the worst defeat of British forces in North America to that time"
French and Indian War and economic fallout
taxes, etc made colonists mad
many amaerican colonists fought for eng
new secreteary of state, promised coloniests financial compensation for fighting in the way
Battle of Quebec
Great european style battle, both commanders died, but british won. turning point in the war, eventually led to french surrender.
War method using sneakiness, camouflage, etc not the traditional European style warfare where you lined up. Proved useful against the British, showed Americans how they could defeat them
Treaty of paris 1763
France gave louisiana territory, plus NO, to spain, but kept its sugar islands. Britain gained until mississippi, and florida
Proclamation Line of 1763
Part of Treaty of Paris. To NA: if you won't bug colonists and don't go E of the line, we'll agree that no colonists can move W of line. ENG can't continue another fight against NA. Not ok w/colonists.
Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys
They were rebels that defended their New Hampshire deeds by creating a miltia...would burn homes, dress as Indians, demolish fences, and threaten their opponents ...eventually merged into the campaign for the American Revolution and captured Fort Ticonderoga
1763 groups of NAs in western New york formed an alliance under pontiac and attacked frontier settlers. Led to the Proclamation Line of 1763
A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen vigilantes led by the Paxtons who massacred a group of non-hostile Indians.
These were vigilante groups active in the 1760s and 1770s in the western parts of North and South Carolina. They violently protested high taxes and insufficient representation in the colonial legislature.
British Prime Minister Architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament
(1764) British deeply in debt due to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. Colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
Quartering Act of 1765
Act forcing colonists to house and supply British forces in the colonies; created more resentment; seen as assault on liberties
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
The British argument that the American colonies were represented in Parliament, since the members of Parliament represented all Englishmen in the empire.
Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with "Give me liberty or give me death" speech 1775
Sons of Liberty
Secret societies formed to protest new taxes passed by Parliament. Led the Boston Tea Party and threatened tax collectors. Founded by Sam Adams.
Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
Adopted by the First Continental Congress, it promised obedience to the king, but denied parliament's right to tax the colonies.
Power of the Purse
Constitutional power given to Congress to raise and spend money
Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
Passed by Parliament in 1767, this act imposed import duties on tea, paper, glass, red and white lead, and painter's colors. It provoked the imperial crisis of 1767-1770. In 1770 Parliament repealed all of the duties except the one on tea.
1770 British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
tax on tea; made the east india company the only tea company allowed to colonists; reason for Tea Party (1773)
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
1774- Required colonists to house troops sent to Massachusetts to enforce the Intolerable Acts
1774 - Coercive Acts
British legislation that closed Boston Harbor, restricted town meetings, and required even private citizens to lodge British soldiers
The Quebec Act, passed in 1774, allow the French Colonists to go back freely to their own customs. The colonists had the right to have access to the Catholic religion freely. Created resent among the colonists.
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
First Continental Congress
Sept. 1774 Delegates from all colonies except Georgia met to discuss problems with Britain and to promote independence
Lexington and Concord
the first battle of the American Revolution (April 19, 1775)
Shot heard around the world
colonies don't get raped
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Olive Branch Petition
last ask for peace, sent to king george begging him to undo parliments acts, ignored
first major battle, although the british won it proved to be a pyrric victory because british suffered more losses, and it proved to the colonists that they had a chance to stand up to this super power.
Thomas Paine/ Common Sense
Pamphlet that called for complete independence from Great Britain, said it was "common sense" catalyzed the DoI
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Declaration of Independence
This document was adopted on July 4, 1776. It established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document.
hired German mercenaries who fought for the British
General William Howe
He took command of British troops in North America after the Battle of Bunker Hill. He captured New York and Philadelphia, but botched the plan to isolate the New England colonies in 1777. He resigned in 1778.
Crossing of the Delaware
george washington crossed river on christmas night
Battle of Trenton
On Christmas day at night, Washington's soldiers began crossing the Delaware River. The next morning, they surprise attacked the Hessians.
Battle of Princeton
A week after the Battle at Trenton, Washington left a few men to tend some campfires and fool the enemy again. He quietly marched his army to Princeton, where they suprised and beat a British force. New Jersey turned Patriot. This battle helped the American morale.
Gentleman Johnnie, Surrendered to america at Saratoga
originally wanted to control hudson river and cut of supplies
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Franco-American Alliance 1778
formal alliance with French recognizing American independance and agreeing not to negotiate with Britain without consultation
Baron von Steuben
The German commander who taught Washington's troops how to fight at Valley Forge.
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army.
Women in the Revolution
import economic role (took over farms and businesses, etc.)
almost no political role (all men created equal = all MEN created equal)
Paper bills issued by the Continental Congress to finance the revolution; supposed to be exchanged for silver but the overprinting of bills made them basically worthless.
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
Slaves and Native Americans' roles in the war
Successful American general during the Revolution who turned traitor in 1780 and joined the British cause.
Colonists who wanted independence from Britain
Jets suck. Hard dicks.Go Pats.
General Charles Cornwallis
British general who fought the Patriots in the south; surrounded and sieged at Yorktown and surrendered to George Washington
The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped a bit.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
Judiciary Act of 1801
Act passed at the very end of Adam's term, which created 16 new judge spots which Adams filled with federalists. These appointments known as "midnight appointments"
Marbury v. Madison
After Marbury (a judge) sued Madison (secretary of state) for his commission, Marshall ruled that the Judiciary Act of 1789, which gave Marbury his commision, was unconstitutional. FIRST USE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW.
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Strong Federalist Judge, appointed by Adams, Supreme Justice from 1801 - 1835. Established many federalist ideas in the judiciary branch, like judicial review, and further asserted federal power over that of states
McCulloch v. Maryland
McCulloch claimed that state taxes on branch of federal banks was unconstitutional, Marshall ruled in favor of him, deeming that the bank charter was Necessary and Proper, establishing national law over state law.
Fletcher v. Peck
1810- Dispute over land which made its way to the Supreme Court. State legislature's repeal of a law was deemed unconstitutional. Deemed that matters of constitutional interpretation should be heard in the Supreme court, asserted federal power over state.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Ruled that charters are supported under the Contract Clause of the Constitution, reaffirmed powers of the federal government.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Marshall said that the National Government could regulate interstate commerce, reinforcing Commerce Clause of the Constitution.
Slave uprising, led by Toussaint L'Oeveture, that occupied Napoleon's/ French attention during the time of the Louisiana Purchase. Resulted in L'Oeveture taking control of Haiti, and the establishment of first republic ruled by people of African descent.
Leader of the Haitian Revolution, eventually won the freedom of his people
Dictator of France during early 1800s, sold Louisiana Territory to Jefferson because he preoccupied with Haitian Rebellion
Napoleon sold Louisiana Territory (830000 sq miles) to American Government for $15 million, controversial deal that Jefferson supported because provided the possibility for exapnding the empire for liberty. Faced opposition Federalists, who worried about balance in Congress being tipped toward western-southern alliance, and diluted "civilized character" of American people. DRs argued that wasn't "necessary of proper"
After personal and political disagreements, Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and fatally wounded him. Effectively the end of Burr's political career. Tried for treason by the Supreme Court, but Marshall acquitted him.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
(May 1804) Expedition into the Louisiana Territory to trace the Mississippi River and find a route to the Pacific Ocean; called the "Corps of Discovery" headed up the Missouri River; found a path through the Rocky Mountains and eventually traced the Columbia River to the Pacific; increased American knowledge of the territory and gave the U.S. a claim to the Oregon territory along the coast, led to increased knowledge of Native American culture
Treatment of Native Americans during Jefferson's administration
Most Americans thought all NAs were savages, took their land without second thought, although some NAs assimilated into white culture
Leader of Shawnees, defied Treaty of Fort Wayne because they hated whites, pretty much
William Henry Harrison/Battle of Tippecanoe
Shawnees v. Indiana militia, losses on both sides, win for Harrison
Spanish surrendered all claims to the remainder of Florida territory, drew the mexico border all the way to the Pacific, around northern border of modern Cali, US agreed to assume $5million in debts.
1807 - The British ship HMS Leopard stopped the USS Chesapeake off the Chesapeake bay, and four alleged British deserters were taken off. Public outcry for the war followed and Jefferson was hard pressed to remain neutral.
Embargo Act of 1807
Jefferson's response to the cry for war. prohibited american ships from leaving port for any foreign destination, so they completely avoided France/Britain ships. Resulted in an economic depression, his most unpopular policy of both terms.
Modified version of the Embargo Act, which allowed for open trade to all nations except for France and Britain. Started right before Madison's inaguration, ended 1810
Macon's Bill Number 2
Born after Non-INtercourse act expired in 1810Allowed trade with France/Britain, but gave president power to prohibit trade with any nation violating neutrality.
Causes of the War of 1812
-Indians being generally annoying and invading when all the Americans did was take their homelands
-French-British war neccesitated IMPRESSMENT policies
-andrew jackson saying lets kill the indians and the spanish and then take their land
loose coalition of some Democratic-Republicans in Congress who believed the war was necessary to defend American citizens at sea
ANDREW JACKSON, john C. Calhoun and Henry Clay leaders of faction
Believed that war would also defend western southern land claims against Indians, florida.
wHILE Federalists were focused on loss of commerce in NE, War Hawks were forcused on defending america's maritime and territorial rights.
THE END OF THE FEDERALIST PARTY, December 1814 - A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.
General who decisively defeated a British invasion force near New Orleans "with a polyglot army of frontiersmen, blacks, creoles, pirates", gained a lot of popular support as a war hero
Battle of New Orleans
January, 1815 - A large British invasion force was repelled by Andrew Jackson's troops at New Orleans. Jackson had been given the details of the British army's battle plans by the French pirate, Jean Laffite. About 2500 British soldiers were killed or captured, while in the American army only 8 men were killed. Neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks before the battle. This victory inspired American nationalism
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Last of the Virginia Dynasty
hand-picked by Madison
Elected with only one opposing electoral vote: a symbol of national unity
5 time failed presidential nominee, gay, stupid, most influential speaker of the house ever, catalyst of modern-day dirty politics "corrupt bargain," stupid
Four of the Five Presidents from Virginia. (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe) The people wondered if all of the presidents were going to be from Virginia. This "dynasty" ended in 1824 with John Quincy Adams
Panic of 1819
Andrew Jackson loses a bunch of money and starts to hate the bank. Resulted from inflation and the mass printing of money by the BUS
Missouri applied for statehood, which caused debate in the Senate as Missouri would be a slave state and would upset the balance of slave v. free in congress. Henry Clay's solution was to admit Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave, keeping the balance. Another part of the compromise was a provision that prohibited slavery north of the southern boundary of Missouri, the (36 degrees 30') line.
Debates were "a fire-ball in the night" - Jefferson
A lot of national revolutions in Latin America, so leaders feared that new Euro governments would try to restore colonial status. So, he sent a doctrine saying "if you stay out of our biz, we'll stay out of yours" although the european powers didnt take him that seriously, 30 yr span w/o serious foriegn involvement
part of the American system proposed by clay, part of transportation revolution, from Cumberland MD to Wheeling VA, toll road network; stimulated Western expansion, provided an increase/better way for transportation of goods from north to south, east west etc
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West. Connected Hudson river and lake erie. Allowed for faster transportation of goods
Governor DeWitt Clinton
Governer of new York that was largely responsible for the construction of the Erie Canal
in the new states, basically all white men could vote, and in older states the qualifications lightened up too. as a result, politicians had to appeal to more people of middle and lower classes.
more middle class men became involved in politics, and more lower class people cared, so politicians tried to appeal to the masses.
John C. Calhoun
represented southern interests
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
Martin Van Buren
VP to Jackson, basically his handpicked successor, but not very sucessful or liked because the Panic of 1837 fell under his term
rebecca looks like a vampire
Election of 1824
end of the era of good feelings
JQA, Clay, Jackson
Jackson won popular votes, but not the electorate so it went to the house
Clay, the speaker of the house, convinced people to vote for JQA in return for position as secretary of state <-- Corrupt Bargain
He ran for prez, but knew he wasnt gonna win, so he convinced people (using his position as Speaker of the HOuse) to vote for JQA in return for position as secretary of state
Jackson won popular votes, but not the electorate so it went to the house
Clay, the speaker of the house, convinced people to vote for JQA in return for position as secretary of state
Election of 1828
Very negative attack ads
JQA (intellectual) v. Jackson (personality)
Jackson won pretty easily cuz he had sabotaged JQAs political career during his presidency
Jackson gives his friends positions, therefore people do what he wants (example taney as secretary of treasury)
Jackson's "kitchen cabinet"
his cabinet were his friends, people he owed favors, etc. picked people because of their personal connection, not because of their political talents
Jackson and the Veto
used the veto more than all of the presidents before him combined - instead of vetoing laws that were constitutional, he vetoed laws that he didnt like (ex. maysville road veto)
Maysville Road veto
Jackson uses his power of the veto to veto this extension of the National Road, part of Clay's American System. Proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements. Also showed strong executive power.
Tariff of Abominations
Jacksonains inherited Congress's 1828 Tariff of Abominations. creates rising sectional differences. led to the SC exposition, nullification, force act etc...
The South Carolina Exposition
nullified the tariff of aboinations, but not passed until 1832. jackson responded with the force act
declaring that the law is unconstitutional, says that they dont have to follow it. follows the precedent of Virginia and Kentucky Resolution
Congressional debate about the tariffs issue, extended the states rights
Hayne- Noth wants to crush other parts of couties
Webster- spports republic as compact of citizens not of states
Turns into argment over sectional interest (slaves, wward expansion)
Jackson "Our Union, It must be preserved!
Tariff of 1832
new tariff, worsens issue
SC adopts nullification legislatiion, both tariffs are declared void
jackson's response to to SC's Nullification
authorizes use or army/navy to enforce federal laws
Tariff of 1833
Jackson + Clay create it to reduce previous tariffs, lets SC save face, compromise
Founders : Webster, Clay, Calhoun
Based of British Party thats was against too much monarchial power (king jackson)
Indian Removal Act of 1832
Jackson urges congress (ex. expansion of political power) to send Indians to Oklahoma and leave florida lands
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Strikes down Cherokee nation status, Cherokee declared as 'domestic dependent nations"
Worcester v. Georgia
Marshal's ruling that Georgia could not exert its state law against the Cherokee +take their land. favored federal power. Jackson "let him enforce it"
Trail of Tears
the forced relocation in 1838 of the Cherokee Native American tribe to the Western United States, the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees. Resulted from an agreement signed under the provisions of the Indian Removal Act.
area covering most of present-day Oklahoma to which most American Indians in the SE were forced to move in the 1830s
Jackson and the 2nd BUS
Jackson wanted to kill the bus
personal animosities vs paper money
fear of such a strong institution
the president of the Bank of the United States, held an immense and possible unconsitutional amout of power over the nations's finacial affairs
Jackson's handpicked (without the consent of congress's) secretary of treasury, he removed gov. specie from the BUS and gives it to 'pet banks'
Banks (state or wildcat) who received the specie taken from the BUS
Issued by Jackson, carried out by Van Buren to control/protect gov. from inflation. Decrees that federal land can only be bought with silver/gold. Leads to panic of 1837
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
1837 Supreme Court Case, Chief Justice Taney ruled that a state had a right to place the public's convenience over that of a private or particular company, over the presumed right of monopoly granted in a corporate charter. (Therefore a company that had a prior long,term contract for a toll bridge over the Charles River between Boston and Cambridge, and a monopoly on bridge traffic—could not prevent a second company from receiving another state contract to construct a competitive toll-free bridge) It advanced the interests of those who favored economic development.
Election of 1840
Whigs blame Van Buren for economic trouble (independent treasury act), taking the presidency away from him. Whigs nominate William Henry Harrison, a proven vote getter (Tippecanoe), to win
Independent Treasury Act
A bill proposed by Van Buren to "divorce" the government from the economy, aka all payments to the gov are to be made in 'specie' to protect against inflation...,
he believed this would help the economy. The act was repealed a year later by the Whigs, but reinstituted in 1847
"Tippecanoe and Tyler too"
used by the Whigs party in 1840; william Henry Harrison; the hero of the battle of Tippecanoe, john tyler as vp
"Putting out system"
system of merchant-capitalists "putting out" raw materials to cottage workers for processing and payment that was fully developed in England
British mechanic that moved to America, in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton.
Known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
Inventor of the cotton gin
cemented the institution of slavery
didn't even get rich because he's stupid
Interchangeable parts allowed the country to prosper:
the north produced more maufactured goods with easier to maintain machines and factories, and the south's raw materials were in higher demand
Southern life revolved around cotton
allowed for faster picking of cotton
cemented the institution of slavery
invented the sewing machine shortly after the invention of the cotton gin, made manufacturing much easier
gay for inventing a sewing machine
Conditions for the rich and poor
• Rich and Poor
o Distinctions in class formed by "era of the Common Man"
In the north, very few held most of the wealth very few had elite fortunes
Most northern Americans the "middling sort" of less affluent businessmen, merchants, artisans, etc. most not badly affected by 1837 depression
However elites kept themselves separate
o Changes in homes of wealthy and middleclass
Families could enjoy iron cook stoves, rugs windows tubs soap lamps candles
Middling housewives hired domestic servants to take over chores
Sewing machines (invented by Elias Howe, Isaac Singer)
• reduced time it took to make clothes, spread an interest in fashion
• Became a curse for young women earning a living finishing textiles manufacturing
Most urban residents poor
• 50 to 70% of artisans and immigrants could barely make ends meet
• Could not get water, food
• While elite neighborhoods became more elaborate, tenement districts decayed
• Had difficult living conditions
• Phili had the most
• Even if they achieved moderate success, still inferior
Daily life for northern farmers and city dwellers
OHMYGOD HES AWESOME
founded Deere & company, largest manufacturing corporation of agricultural and construction goods in the world
invented STEEL PLOW, fueled westward expansion
invented the mechanical reaper (harvested more wheat with fewer workers)
even though the country was getting bigger, it seemed to be getting smaller with improved infrastructure
paid factory workers
made so little that they were basically slaves
couldn't escape, because if they quit, german and irish immigrants would just take their jobs
was a cotton and wool manufacturing plant
"put spinning and weaving under one roof"
mostly women working at looms, showed wage differentials between men and women
mass production of high-quality cloth
term used by John L. O'Sullivan to express the popular belief that the US had a divine mission to extend its power and civilization across the breadth of North America; spurred by nationalism, population increase, rapid economic development, technological advances, and reform ideals
Frederick Jackson Turner's Thesis
"The Significance of the Frontier in American History" -1893
Americans had developed a unique national identity as a result of their experience of the west
Sectional contests, the presence of Indians, the rudeness of nature etc imparted onto American settlers a particular character:
Democratic, pragmatic, forward-looking, individualistic
(not all true, americans weren't all too nice, and a lot of struggling)
some fatties couldn't trade stocks or get any land so they went west and usually died trying to get there
went from independence, missouri to oregon
new cheap land, similarities to pilgrims
Adams Onis Treaty
Spain cedes Florida to the United States and gives up its claims to the Oregon Territory, after they first see Andrew Jackson
Santa Anna and his mexican forces annihilated Texan forces at the Alamo, a fort near San Antonio. Led to a great wave of anger against the mexicans, and nationalism --> "Remember the Alamo!"
Austin Texas named after him - Original settler of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish
REASON FOR MEXICAN AMERICAN WAR
Andrew Jackson successfully bribed in, proving he was corrupt
Also the Mexican dictator who was in charge when war broke out between the Mexicans and Americans. He lost Texas to rebels, and was the leader of the armed forces during the war.
Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie
famous pioneers who defended the Alamo
One of Andrew Jackson's many proteges
was an alcoholic, then became a senator and governor
Went to Mexico to instigate rebellion
ended up becoming to governor of texas while it was its own country
Annexation of Texas
10 year debate, North against it because it would upset the political balance, annexed with Oregon to maintain balance
1845 under Tyler
Led to annexation of California
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk
rand paul of 1840's
Election of 1844
Main debate over Texas. Whigs nominate Henry Clay (bitch) and democrats nominate James Polk. Polk says he will annex Texas and Oregon to make both sides happy. Polk was elected
the eleventh President of the United States. He threatened war with Britain then backed away and split the ownership of the Northwest with Britain. He is even more famous for leading the successful Mexican-American War.
"54-40 or Fight"
slogan used by james polk meaning that they would claim the oregon territory up to the 54 40 line, or fight the british (who also claimed this land)
American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the United States Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. First Presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform of opposition to slavery (lost election of 1856).
Bear Flag Republic
name for California before it became a state
General Zachary Taylor
Commander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border. Taylor's forces engaged in is a series of engagements that led to the Mexican War. His victories in the war and defeat of Santa Ana made him a national hero. "old rough and ready"
idk everything that's up there ^
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
proposed that slavery should not exist in Mexico, aroused sectional conflicts
People who opposed expansion of slavery into western territories
Election of 1848
Candidates: 1. Zachary Taylor-winner, honest, ignorant (whig) 2. Martin Van Buren (Free Soil Party- made slavery an issue) 3. Lewis Cass-father of popular sovereignty (Democrat/gay). Zachary Taylor became president, died in office, making his vice president Millard Fillmore president
a period from1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.
Irish and German Immigration
Fleeing unemployment and destitute poverty in overpopulated Ireland
MUCH MORE POTATOES
Few had enough to even buy cheap land out west, so they stayed in the east working as unskilled laborers, on the waterfronts, on construction (CANALS)
Women worked as domestic servants, seamstress
Not payed a lot
Catholic, outcasts, leaned toward Jacksonian democracy
Boston: conflict between Whigs and Irish
"east enders" very neighborly
Already some in PA, so German communities already in place
Dropped off tobacco ships, so dropped near NO, Baltimore, went to ST Louis and Texas
Unlike Irish, arrived with some money, and with skills
Many acquired prosperous trades, farms
Made a considerable mark on cuisine and culture
Nativists (Know Nothiings)
like "someone beat up that Irishman? i know nothing!!!!!!"
Second Great Awakening
An outburst of religious ferver in the 1820s, in which free will played a key role in salvation, revivals which appealed to peoples emotion
Baptism and Methodism were new sects
Women very involed in the movement made up a majority of new church members -- taught that women could pplay a key role in brungung their hubbys and families back to god, in turn save society
Americas national mission to be an exemplar for the rest of the world
evangelical religion made social reform a moral imperative
Charles Grandison Finney
"Each Christian should have the determination of being useful in the highest degree possible"
New sect of Christianity that was looked down upon for the role of polygamy in the life style, moved out to Utah. Founded by Joseph smith, who was given the book of Mormon by and angel and later killed.
He was responsible for forming the Mormon sect of Christianity. This new sect was an American one and not European in origin as with all the other sects.
The successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith. He was responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Utah, thereby populating the would-be state.
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
haha, that doesn't exist
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
a movement to reduce the consumption of alcoholic, which was very high. this movement was popular amoung women, who had to face their husbands drinking away savings, and alcohol related problems such as job loss, fights, and domestic abuse
Alexis de Tocqueville
Came from France to America in 1831, observed democracy in government and society. His book discusses the advantages and disadvantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
Cult of Domesticity
glorifying the role of the woman in the house, her job to make a good home, to be a wife and mother, but her role is primarily in the home
women's demand for suffrage (Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton), 19th Amendment granted women suffrage
the movement concentrated on ending slavery in the United States
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
Susan B. Anthony
Key leader of woman suffrage movement, social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, womens rights movement, .and the abolitionist movement
Seneca Falls Convention
seneca ny, started the women's rights movement, Susan B Anthony, Stanton, Mott. Declaration of Sentiments, which said all men and women are created equal
Declaration of Sentiments
"all men and women are created equal" - Stanton at the Seneca Falls Convention
where a core of NE radicals who abandoned their urban and industrial communities to go, many Unitarian ministers and scholars of romanticism, a movement that streessed emotion, imagination, and freedom from social conventions.
kind of utopian society, radical free love advocates
Oneidans formed one family in complex marriage in which any saved man or woman could have intercourse with any other, but only certain males were selected father children, who were raised communally. Many viewed this as a scandal, but survived successfully for many years.
founded in 1744 when Mother Ann Lee left the Quakers to establish a community of equal brothers and sisters that would replace the traditional family. practiced celibacy. settled in communities on the fringe of existing towns, totaling about 6000 members in 8 states
Mother Ann Lee
left the Quakers in 1744 to found the Shaker community (see Shakers)
Hudson River School
school of painting that romanticized the landscapes of New York's Catskill and Adirondack mountains in nationalistic tones.
Artist who tried to capture what it was to be an american. founded the hudson river school.
group in New York that wrote literature and enabled America to boast for the first time of a literature that matched its magnificent landscapes
sought to transcend the bounds of the intellect and strive for emotional understanding and unity with God without the help of institutional religion, which they felt was stifiling to self expression
proved a basis for intellectuals to scrutinize and follow one's conscience
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Henry David Thoreau
Transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery.He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support the Mexican War, which he believed would increase slavery.
Poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
Part of the Romanticism movement, emphasized emotion over rationalism
Edgar Allen Poe
Was an American poet, short-story writer, editor and literary critic, and is considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre.
Nathaniel Hawthorne has his adulterous couple in The Scarlet Letter rejected by their community for violating the norms established for orderly living. Their individual redemption can occur only outside the community, in the next world.
Herman Melville served eighteen months as a whaler. These adventuresome years served as a major part in his writing. Melville wrote Moby Dick, which was transcendentalism and demonstrated that both individualism and cooperation fail against the forces of nature.
Historiography of Slavery
necessary for the economic development of our country
He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.
Self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
Gained her freedom in 1827 when New York state abolished slavery. Traveled the country speaking out against slavery. Her original name was Isabella Van Wagner.
19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
"Little woman who wrote the book that started the great big war"
Depended on slavery
New importation of slaves became unnecessary
"renewable labor force"
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Nat Turner believed he had been chosen to lead people out of slavery; 80 followers; attacked 4 plantations; killed 60 whites; captured tried and hanged
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Free African Americans
According to the compact theory of the Union, the states retained all powers not specifically delegated to the central government by the Constitution.
Political Party that supported the Wilmot Proviso and believed that all new land should be free, active mainly in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections.
Included Walt Whitman and Charles Sumner
California Gold Rush
1849 (San Francisco 49ers) Gold discovered in California attracted a rush of people all over the country to San Francisco.
First person to discover gold, John Marshall
Whig president who was a Southern slave holder, and war hero (mexican-american war). won the 1848 election. surprisingly did not address the issue of slavery at all on his platform. he died during his term and his vice president was millard fillmore.
Compromise of 1850
Series of legislation addressing slavery and the boundaries of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War. California was admitted as a free state, Texas received financial compensation for relinquishing claim to lands West of the Rio Grande river, the territory of New Mexico was organized with popular sovereignty, the slave trade was abolished in Washington, D.C., and the Fugitive Slave Law was passed It temporarily defused sectional tensions in the United States, postponing the secession crisis and the American Civil War. Also repealed the compromise of 1820.
Senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty
A single document that is accepted in a single vote by a legislature but contains amendments to a number of other laws or even many entirely new laws.
Fugitive Slave Act
Passed 1850, this law stated that all citizens were required to assist in the recovery of runaway slaves and fugitives slaves could not get a jury trial
Commodore Matthew Perry
the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.
The recommendation that the U.S. offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another slave state.
A proslavery American adventurer from the South, he led an expedition to seize control on Nicaragua in 1855. He wanted to petition for annexation it as a new slave state but failed when several Latin American countries sent troops to oust him before the offer was made.
Kansas Nebraska Act
1854 - This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Sack of Lawrence
1856 - beginning of Bleeding Kansas; Proslavery raiders shot up and burned part of Lawrence
Anti-slavery leader who attempted to start a massive slave uprising by seizing the federal armory at Harpers Ferry in 1859.
Somewhere over the rainbow
Sumner (Free-Soiler) attacks Brooks's uncle viciously and personally in a speech to Congress.
Brooks later f*cks him up with a hickory cane.
Formation of the Republican Party
• northern Whigs could no longer claim a national party and many north democrats despised Douglas's compromise over Kansas with the south
• free-soilers +American party = Republicans
• consisted of:
• former northern Whig abolitionists
• former free-soilers
• northern democratic voters who agreed that slavery should be kept out of the territories but allowed to persist in the South
• reformers (temperance, religion, education, immigration in home states)
• northern and western merchants b/c it promised a strong nat'l gov't to promote commerce and internal improvements
• northern and western farmers
• ABRAHAM LINCOLN
• stood for:
• NO SLAVERY IN NEW TERRITORIES
• Strong national government to promote commerce and internal improvements
Election of 1856
In this presidential election, Democrat James Buchanan defeated Republican candidate John C. Fremont. He won the general election by denouncing the abolitionists, promising not to allow any interference with the Compromise of 1850, and supporting the principle of noninterference by Congress with slavery in the territories.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens
Pro-slavery constitution that got voted in for Kansas after anti-slavery people boycotted the election, supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
Panic of 1857
The California gold rush increased inflation; speculation in land and railroads "ripped economic fabric"; hit the North harder than South because the South had cotton as a staple source of income; the North wanted free land from the government; drove Southerners closer to a showdown; caused an increase in tariffs; gave Republicans an issue for the election of 1860.
U.S. statesmen, 16th president. Led Union to victory in Civil War. Assassinated. Sometimes called "Honest Abe".
Lincoln Douglas Debates
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported popular-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
Confederate States of America
The confederation formed in 1861 by the Southern states after their secession form the Union. South Carolina, Texas, Mississippi, Florida, Alabam, Georgia, Louisiana in 1861
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Former Senator from Mississippi
A last-ditch effort to resolve the secession crisis by compromise. It proposed to bar the government from intervening in the states' decision of slavery, to restore the Missouri Compromise, and to guarantee protection of slavery below the line. Lincoln rejected the proposal, causing the gateway to bloodshed to be open.
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War, no deaths.
Lincoln sends supplies, but not troops so he doesn't look like the aggressor.
States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede.
Important - had the South succeeded in attaining the border states, the Union would have lost
General Winfield Scott
Was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. he served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history. Over the course of his fifty-year career, he commanded forces in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Black Hawk War, the Second Seminole War, and, the American Civil War.
Union plan to block all of the Confederate's resources, strangling them economically by taking over water ways with the navy.
Battle of Bull Run
July 21, 1861. Va. (outside of D.C.) People watched battle. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson: Confederate general, held his ground and stood in battle like a "stone wall." Union retreated. Confederate victory. Showed that both sides needed training and war would be long and bloody
General George McClellan
Appointed by Lincoln to head the Union army of the East; Lincoln was frustrated when he failed to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, fired
General Robert E. Lee
Commander of Confederate Army. Great leader, Lincoln wanted him as the leader of the Union Army
Brave commander of the Confederate Army that led troops at Bull Run. He died in the confusion at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
Ulysses S. Grant
"Unconditional Surrender" Grant
Threw bodies at the South
Battle of Shiloh
1862 Civil War Battle; resulted in greater Union control over the Mississippi River valley
Union naval admiral whose fleet captured New Orleans and Baton Rouge
In 1861 the Confederacy sent emissaries James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France to lobby for recognition. A Union ship captured both men and took them to Boston as prisonners. The British were angry and Lincoln ordered their release.
Bloodiest day of Civil War.
No clear victor, but gives Lincoln reason to declare the Emancipation Proclamation.
Denied the South the decisive victory to gain foreign support.
One of the most celebrated 19th century American photographers, best known for his portraits of celebrities and the documentation of the American Civil War. He is credited with being the father of Realism
Civil War Draft
At first depended on volunters, but then North issues a draft. Rich men could escape the draft by paying.
South also drafted, and slave owners and overseers of over 20 slaves were exempted.
Conscription Act in 1863 forced men between 20-45 years old to be eligible for conscription but one could avoid it if they paid 300 or got someone in their place; provoked anger from poor workers
Legal Tender Act
Lincoln signed in 1862, authorized $150 million in greenbacks. Confederacy never made its paper money legal tender, responded by making more paper money, which accelerated southern inflation.
Suspension of Habeas Corpus
Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually held the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.
Experiences of the Soldiers
Disease (Soldiers drank from the same river they urinated in at war camps)
Desertion of Troops, especially in the South (unmotivated, because the ones who really wanted the war (slaveholders) did not have to fight)
"Rich Man's War" Rich were exempt from duty if they paid $300, and several millionaires were made by the Civil War
Ate Tack - ****** rock hard bread
Worst prisoner camp in the Civil War, located in Georgia. Disease killed hundreds of people every day
Morrill Land Grant
This was a federal grant, in which the federal government donated land to states to make colleges on.
30000 acres per legislator (this way the education in each state would be proportional to the population)
National Bank Act
Passed February 1863
Mainly used to create steady way of keeping track of money during Civil War
Evolved into Federal Reserved
First National banking system since B.U.S.
Women in Richmond confront Governor Letcher (Virginia) about high prices of food. He offered no solution, so they turned into an angry mob and start rioting. Jefferson Davis shows up, and the ringleaders get arrested.
Role of Women during Civil War
Worked as nurses, risking lives
Took charge of households
U.S. Sanitary Comission
Orgy-nization developed to provide medical supplies and assistance to Union armies in the field
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
Founded the American Red Cross (1881)
Abraham Lincoln, Sept 22,1862
"Freed the Slaves" Jan 1, 1863
Only applied to Confederate States, where he had no jurisdiction
Battle of Gettysburg
Worst battle of the war, 50,000 killed
Farthest the South would reach
Solidified Northern victory
3rd day of Gettysburg
Lee asked Pickett to lead troops on a mile and a half run (across an open field) where they get slaughtered by the Union army
Grant besieged the city from May 18 to July 4, 1863, until it surrendered, yielding command of the Mississippi River to the Union.
The channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort.
Came with Civil War and WWI
New technology made war much more deadly
William Tecumseh Sherman
Lived (1820-1891)United States general who was commander of all Union troops in the West he captured Atlanta and led a destructive march to the sea that cut the Confederacy in two (Sherman's March the the Sea)
Burned Charleston to the ground
"Sherman Neckties" represent total annihilation of the South
Election of 1864
Lincoln vs. McClellan, Lincoln wants to unite North and South, McClellan wants war to end if he's elected.
The Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
Aftermath of the Civil War
SOUTH GETS FUUUUUUUUUCKED
Congressmen Preston Brooks attacked Charles Sumner on the floor of the senate with a cane after Sumner (abolitionist/free-soiler) attacks his uncle in a speech.
Formation of the Republican Party
Whigs and Northern Democrats who despised Kansas/ Nebraska Policy formed a new party. some northern abolitionists and free soilers joined
Election of 1856
Democrats nominated Buchanan, Republicans nominated Fremont, and Know-Nothings chose Fillmore. Buchanan won due to his support of popular sovereignty
This was Lincoln's reconstruction plan for after the Civil War. Written in 1863, it proclaimed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the 1860 election pledged their allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation, and then formally establish their state governments. This plan, which was very lenient to the South, would have meant an easy reconstruction.
Gave a speech in May 1856 called the "Crime Against Kansas" Speech. Abolitionist, beat with a cane by Preston Brooks after the speech, collapsed unconscious and couldn't return to Senate for 4 years. Became symbol throughout the north.
A Radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress.
Helped draft 14th Amendment
1864; Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
When a president kills a bill passed during the last 10 days Congress is in session by simply refusing to act on it
John Wilkes Booth
American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote.
occurred from 1865-1877 and was an attempt from President Abraham Lincoln to reunite the North and the South. Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan, the Wade-Davis Bill and the Freedmen's Bureau were all part of the reconstruction plan. Because Lincoln's Reconstruction plans were cut short after his assassination in 1865, new President Andrew Johnson took matters into his own hands by announcing that on the ratification of the 13th Amendment, Southern states would be re-admitted into the Union.
Oath of Allegiance
Oath that had to be taken by southerners, said they were loyal to the union, and that they repudiated slavery
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) No confederate debts
Ratified 1870. One of the "Reconstruction Amendments". Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Restricted the rights and movements of newly freed African Americans; 1) prohibited blacks from either renting land or borrowing money to buy land; 2) placed freemen into a form of semi bondage by forcing them, as "vagrants" and "apprentices" to sign work contracts' 3) prohibited blacks from testifying against whites in court.
Provided food , clothing, education, medical care to former slaves. Established by Congress in 1865.
Civil Rights Act
In 1866, the Civil Rights Act was created to grant citizenship to blacks and combat the Black Codes. It also prohibited racial discrimination on jury selection. The Civil Rights Act was not really enforced and was really just a political move used to attract more votes. It led to the creation and passing of the 14th amendment.
Congress v. President Johnson
Congress: This guy's a cheeky ***er. Let's ** with him and pass a law that says he can't do ***.
Other Congress: YEAH!
Congress: Tenure of Office Act, SUCK IT.
Andrew Johnson: *** you guys, I'm not going with this ***.
Andrew Johnson: Hahahaha, **** no.
An associate of William Lloyd Garrison, this man founded the American Antislavery Society in 1833.
It divided the South into 5 military districts, each commanded by a Union general and policed by Union soldiers. It also required that states wishing to be re-admitted into the Union had to ratify the 14th Amendment, and that states' constitutions had to allow former adult male slaves to vote.
Those (mostly female) who were active in seeking voting rights for women as an inherent right for all individuals in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Saw black men getting rights before white women, and were like wtf. Susan B. Anthony included.
Tenure of Office Act
Required the president to secure consent of the Senate before removing appointees once they had been approved. Instated to protect Radical Republican Secretary of State Stanton.
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
Republicans didn't like him, because he was a Democrat. Actually, no one really liked him.
name given to Southerners, often Unionists, accused of plundering the treasuries of the Southern states through their political influence.
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political, economic, or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states.
Ku Klux Klan
White-supremacist group formed by six former Conferedate officers after the Civil War. Name is essentially Greek for "Circle of Friends". Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915.
Black Mississippi senator elected to the seat that had been occupied by Jefferson Davis when the South seceded
Meaning of freedom
For blacks, more psychological than material.
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
system of farming where farmers rented their land from the landowner, and were allowed to grow what ever crop the prefered.
condition of sharecroppers who could not pay off their debts and therefore could not leave the property they worked
Election of 1868
The Republicans nominated General Grant for the presidency in 1868. The Republican Party supported the continuation of the Reconstruction of the South, while Grant stood on the platform of "just having peace." The Democrats nominated Horatio Seymour. Grant won the election of 1868.
"Waved the bloody shirt"
Election of 1872
President Grant was renominated, without opposition, at the Republican convention at Philadelphia in June 1872. The Republican platform condemned racial and religious discrimination and called for granting women greater rights. President Grant's opponent was Horace Greeley of New York. He was first nominated by the "Liberal Republicans" who wished to protest the corruption of the Grant administration. The Democrats were in such disarray that they were unable to select a candidate and therefore endorsed Greeley. Greeley's campaign primarily on the theme of "more honest government". Most Americans still found Grant popular, and were convinced that he was not responsible for the corruption in his administration. Thus, they re-elected Grant.
Waving the bloody shirt
After a political party wins a war, they can "wave the bloody shirt" to the wars beneficiaries for a couple of elections to gain votes.
An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.
General Amnesty Act
A\n act passed that reenfranchised ex-confederates that previously had been barred from voting after the resolve of the civil war (re-allowed them to vote). It was intended to take votes away from Grant, who had obviously been a Union General. While it did increase the Democrat's numbers by a good deal, since the black vote still outweighed them and Grant's opposition was split between two candidates, Grant still won.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Gave blacks the privilege of American citizenship and denied states' the right to restrict blacks of their property, testify in court, and make contracts for their labor. Johnson vetoed this, but Congress voted to override the veto.
Group of cases resulting in one decision by the Supreme Court in 1873 that contradicted the intent of the 14th Amendment, stating that most citizens rights remained under state, not federal control.
Election of 1876
Samuel Tilden had more votes, and neither got the the majority electoral.
Results in the Compromise of 1877
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
The rise of a South after the Civil War which would no longer be dependent on now-outlawed slave labor or predominantly upon the raising of cotton, but rather a South which was also industrialized and part of a modern national economy
Crop Lien System
In this system, storekeepers granted credit until the farm was harvested. To protect the creditor, the storekeeper took a mortgage, or lien, on the tenant's share of the crop. The system was abused and uneducated blacks were taken advantage of. The result, for blacks, was not unlike slavery, because they couldn't be removed for sharecropping or tenant farming while still in debt.
uhhhhh its like this movement the southern states went through that started out as reembering the past of the better south and then transformed into a rememberence for the lost soldiers in the war
but im not sure
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
A tax a person is required to pay before he or she is allowed to vote. Used in many southern states after the Reconstruction period to restrict African-American citizens' right to vote.
A test administered as a precondition for voting, often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
Segregation of facilities
part of "separate but equal"
Facilities were separate, but there was no one to enforce the equal part
Plessy vs. Ferguson
(1896) The Court ruled that segregation was not discriminatory (did not violate black civil rights under the Fourteenth Amendment) provided that blacks received accommodations equal to those of whites.
Elaborately organized community events where an individual (typically black) was publicly hung due to a crime (true or perceived). Resulted from white supremacy or fear of black sexuality.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Argument put forward by Booker T. Washington that African-americans should not focus on civil rights or social equality but concentrate on economic self-improvement.
W.E.B. Du Bois
African American leader who helped form the NAACP (national association of the advancments of colored people). Believed that blacks should take action.
Massacre at Wounded Knee
A massacre in 1890 that started when Sioux left the reservation because of the killing of Sitting Bull, their chief. The US Army killed 150 Sioux at Wounded Knee, and the Massacre at Wounded Knee became the last major conflict in the Great Plains.
Large % of migrators were foreigners (ex: Norwegian, Swedish, German, Irish, Canadian, Chinese, Hispanic). However, most of them were still from the US (1870-1900 over 2.5 million native born Americans moved West). Native born migrants: 1) believed their crops would best adapt if they stayed at the same latitude as their home; 2) usually prosperous farmers, merchants, or professionals; 3) mainly male if moving to work in mines, timber, or livestock industry; 4) stream of migrants changed according to economy (up during booms, down during depressions); 5) tended to move more than once. Railroad companies, new western states, and land speculators encouraged migration
Homestead Act of 1862
Act that allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it, and paying $30 - instead of public land being sold primarily for revenue, it was now being given away to encourage the filling of the Great Plains and to provide a stimulus to the family farm. Land given to the settlers usually had terrible soil and no precipitation.
Impact of the Transcontinental Railroad
Became easier, faster, and safer for settlers to move west. Populization led to urbanization and connected the country.
Treaty of Fort Laramie
Sioux agreed to live on reserves along the Missouri River. The federal government promised this land would be theirs forever.
Battle of Little Bighorn
The government ordered all Sioux to leave their territory to put a stop to raids. This broke out into a battle that took place near the Little Bighorn River. In 1876, Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died.
Colonel George Custer
An American officer who led an expidition in 1874 of explorers and gold-seekers into the land promised to the Sioux, sparking conflict which lead to the Great Sioux War against the Sioux tribe in the Dakota region.
Helen Hunt Jackson
Author of "A Century of Dishonor" (1881); the book created sympathy for Native Americans.
Dawes Act of 1887
Dissolved tribes and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like "good white settlers" then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men. The Dawes Act remained the basis of the government's official Indian policy until the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
Living in the Wild, Wild West
oh its just talking about general life in the west
like the lack of certain jobs and the violence and drinking and prostitution
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Bill passed by Congress in response to labor disputes that prohibited all immigration from China until 1943.
Turner's Frontier Thesis
American character was shaped by the existence of the frontier and the way Americans interacted and developed the frontier. The frontier encouraged individualism and democracy.
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790) Believed that the government shouldn't intercede in economy. Capitalism.
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
United States author of inspirational (rags to riches) adventure stories for young lads.
William Graham Sumner
1840 - 1910 , philosopher that supported Social Darwinism.
Formulated by Herbert Spencer, said that human race driven forward to ever greater specialization and progress by the brutal economic struggle. Struggle resulted in survival of the fittest: Rich were strong, poor were weak. Really liked by upper middle class.
(1835-1919) Scottish immigrant, started poor but became successful. Became head of Carnegie Steel, largest steel corporation at the time, first to user the Bessemer process.
Used vertical integration. Bought out by JP Morgan.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Wrote Looking Backward; said that captialism supported the few and exploited the many. character wakes up in 2000 after napping; says socialism will be on top in the end.
He wrote Progress and Poverty in 1879, which made him famous as an opponent of the evils of modern capitalism.
In the 1800s he enlarged fresh meat markets through branch slaughterhouses and refrigerated cars. He monopolized the meat industry.
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition.
John D. Rockefeller
American industrialist and philanthropist. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s. He kept his stock and as gasoline grew in importance, his wealth soared and he became the first U.S. billionaire.
Standard Oil Company
John D. Rockefeller's comapny, formed in 1870, which came to symbolize the trusts and monopolies of the Gilded age. By 1877 it controlled 95% of the oil refineries in the U.S. It became a target for trust reformers, and in 1911 the Supreme Court ordered it to break up into several dozen smaller companies.
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
Most powerful banker of the 1800's who used banking profits to gain control of major corporations.
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions.
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices.
Frederick W. Taylor
The original "efficiency expert" who, in the book The Principles of Scientific Management from 1911. Promoted efficient management of production time and costs, the proper routing and scheduling of work, standardization of tools and equipment, and the like.
Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.
Wages and working conditions for workers
Wages increased, but the wages of skilled workers improved much more than unskilled workers and there were regional variants (Southern workers earned less that North and Midwest). Large number of workers remained very poor and although they improved their condition over time, it was only by putting the entire family to work. Workers resisted many new work restrictions through cooperative alliances and wildcat strikes
In the late 1800s a significant portion of the labor force was made up of children under the age of 15, some as young as 5 years old. These child laborers did not attend school. They worked in sweat shops which were workshops in tenements rather than factories.
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
Great Railroad Strike
July, 1877 - A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men.
Knights of Labor
1869. Led by Uriah S. Stephens. Demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories. Leaderships under Powderly, successful with Southwest Railroad System, failed after Haymarket Riot.
Haymarket Square Incident
After the McCormick reaper works locked out its employees in Feb 1886 and reopened in March with nonunion labor, and police killed 2 anarchists in a May 3 rally, a group of 1200 anarchists met the following day in Haymarket Square (downtown Chicago) to protest deaths of anarchists killed in rally. 180 police arrived and ordered away protesters, leaving 330. As police moved in, someone threw a bomb->police regrouped, firing guns and clubbing people, 1 policeman dead and 60 people injured. Results: people then hated anarchists and broke force of direct labor resistance to new industrial order for next decade
Born in London 1850, emigrated to US 1863. Believed in "pure and simple" Unionism-> concentrated on concrete benefits over more ambitious agenda of Knights. Prez of AFL from 1886 to 1924
Depression of 1893
Failure of Philadelphia and Reading Railroad sparked chain reaction. RR construction stopped therefore demand for steel dropped and banks failed. Lingered 4 years, by 1894 nearly 3 million workers idle
Wealthy quarry owner from OH who, starting Easter Sunday 1894, lead 500 unemployed men, women, and children from OH to Washington with expectation that many more would join. Planned to present govt with petition in support of public works program of road building. When he arrived, 100 police routed them and arrested Coxey for trespassing on the grass of the Capitol grounds
Pullman Palace Car Company layed off large number of workers; those who kept jobs had wages greatly reduced, but rent in model factory town was not reduced. May 1894 workers went on strike and in June ARU helped by boycotting all Pullman cars. Strike spread rapidly and resulted in delaying mail and increasing RR traffic in Chicago area. Under pressure from business community of Chicago, Prez Cleveland sent troops July 4-> sparked widespread violence. After a few days, order restored
1892 workers at steel plant in Homestead, PA objected to reducing wages-> manager Henry Frick ordered lockout, hired 300 strikebreakers and built barbed wire fence around plant to keep out workers. July 6, strikebreakers tried to sneak into the plant and workers attacked. After all day battle, Pinkertons surrendered, 3 Pinkertons and 10 strikers dead. By Oct, with help of 8000 militia troops, Frick hired new workers and forced strikers to accept harsh settlements. Ended effective organizing of steel industry for 50 years
Official of locomotive firemen's union, led ARU to form powerful alliance of all railroad workers: largest single union in the nation. Founder of socialist party in 1900
Industrial workers of the world, most radical group. Under Haywood, envisioned utopian state run by workers. Small group, but accepted blacks, women, and immigrants
Cheaper and better transportation made immigration more possible. Conditions at home and hope for better opportunities encouraged most people to leave for America. Millions of jewish families from eastern Europe fled to America following Russian persecution. In the mid 1800s most of the immigrants came from the United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, China, and Scandinavia. Then in the late 19th century waves of immigrants from different countries began. Many came from Italy, Poland, Russia, Austria, hungary, Greece, turkey, and Syria. The most common were 1. Italian catholics (5 million between 1876 and 1930) 2. Slavs (4 million)3. Jews (2million). Immigrants lived in major cities.
low-cost housing, small room that is made to serve as an apartment to a family unit. One tenement was often shared by more than one family, and there was no living space. in 1890 2/3 of new york's population lived in one of its 32,000 tenement buildings. Conditions in tenements were horrible. New immigrants usually lived in tenements.
Problems in inner cities
Many vice districts and skid row neighborhoods popped up across the countries which were filled with prostitutes, gamblers, pimps, and society's outcasts. Best known Red light districts were Tenderloin in New York, Barbary Coast in San Fran, and Storyville in New Orleans. Cities were unkept, full of trash, had awful odors. No city's had clean drinking water. Epidemics easily spread in cities where there were concentrated populations in city slums.poverty and crime rates soared, homicide rate tripled in 1880s.
Ran by ich men who held political office and controlled sectors, called "Bosses". They gave money to build infrastructure in their sectors and assisted those who needed financial help. They were the most significant anthropologists, and everyone knew who they were. In exchange for the benefits they gave, they expected votes to keep their political office. Made election process extremely corrupt.
William Marcy (Boss) Tweed
Most famous of the bosses. Rose through the ranks of NY's Tammany Hall political machine by serving multiple public service positions. In 1870 Tweed got NY to spend more than 12 million on internal improvements, by ordering large quantities of goods from local suppliers who patronized him. Tweed was arrested in 1871 on 104 counts of fraud and liberty.
New York Political Machine. Scammed city into spending $12 million on a construction project, that could have been completed for a much lower price. Tammany Hall existed for almost 150 years. Tweed was the head between 1858 and 1871.
Part of the evolution of newspapers. Bought the New York World in 1883.
William Randolph Hearst
Bought the San Francisco Call, a newspaper, in 1887.
First American author born west of the Mississippi river. Wrote fiction books. Displayed contemporary society through books, exposing the flaws of corruption, materialism, and hypocrisy.Most famous book is The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
Wrote Sister Carrie which traces the downward journey of an innocent country girl who is corrupted by urban pleasures and becomes a prostitute.
Author. Viewed life as a relentless struggle in which powerful social forces determine an individual's fate.
Wrote The Octopus in 1901 about a predatory railroad that destroyed wheat growers in the nation's heartland.
Became a popular icon of the new women. She was shown relishering her freedom by being active (biking, playing tennis, or playing golf)
Frederick Law Olmstead
Architect of New York's Central Park, first major public park in the United States. Helped harmonize the city and bring rural beauty. Influenced the behavior of lawless and unfortunate people. Built in the 1850s.
Introduced to congress by Anthony Comstock, the founder of the New York Society for the Supresssion of Vice. Was the most powerful spokesman for censorship. The law banned any mail that was designed to incite lust. Comstock was made a special agent to the postmaster general, and confiscated a large quantity of mail that was believed to violate this law.
Women's Christian Temperance Union
Protestant middle class women who led the national crusade against alcohol, which led to the constitutional amendment in 1919 banning alcohol.
Role of Public Schools
In 1890 most cities had compulsory schooling between certain ages. Attendance in public schools increases from 6.9 milion to 17.8 million in 1910. And the number of public schools rose from 500 to 10,000. Public schools were viewed as the place where immigrant children would go and become americans.
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
Grant presidency, head John McDonald, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
Scandalous company created by Union Pacific Railroad insiders, it distributed shares of its stock to Congressmen to avoid detection
Granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
An American lawyer who assassinated President James A. Garfield on July 2, 1881. He was executed by hanging.
A politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party. Was highly against civil service reforms. Framed for Garfield's murder.
Led by Senator Roscoe Conkling, it swapped civil service jobs for votes
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons.
Removed patronage due to loss of incentive on politicians' part
Republican nominee for president in 1884, previously a Secretary of State
"Grover the Good", 22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
the twenty-third President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. His administration is best known for a series of legislation including the McKinley Tariff and federal spending that reached one billion dollars.
1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States and eliminated duties on sugar. In return for its passage, the Sherman Silver Purchase Act was given Republican support.
Resulted in Depression of 1893, and recession in Hawaii (domestic sugar source)
Promoted a strong government that will reduce economic inequality, regulate businesses, and impose strincter social and criminal sanctions
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war.
Specie Resumption Act
Issued by Congress, limited reduction of greenbacks, full resumption of specie payment by Jan. 1879, causes deflation angering farmers and workers
Munn v. Illinois
(1877) United States Supreme Court Case that ended up allowing states to regulate business within their borders, including railroads.
Munn - storage corporation
Illinois wanted to put ceiling on storage rates
1867. Led by Oliver Kelly The Grange was a group of farmers that worked for improvement for the farmers. During the late 1800's, the Grange, strove to regulate railway rates and storage fees charged by railroads, warehouses, and grain elevators through state legislation. These laws that were passed, but eventually reversed, are referred to as the Granger Laws.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Changes in state Constitutions
Most states had written and adopted new state constitutions by the state legislatures. In a few of the states, a proposed constitution was submitted to a vote of the people for ratification. Each state constitution began with a bill listing the basic rights and freedoms that belonged to all citizens. Most powers of state governments were given to three seperate branches: a two house legislature, an elected governor and a court system. The right to vote was extended to all property owning white males. The right to hold office was held to a higher property qualification than the voters.
Articles of Confederation
John Dickinson drafted the first draft of the Articles. Congress then modified Dickinson's plan to protect the power of the states. Most matters could be determined in Congress by a simple majority. Control of the western lands stayed in the hands of the people and states. Each state was given one vote in the unicameral house legislature. Gave congress the power to wage war, send dimplomatic messages, and borrow money. Did not have the power to regulate commerce or taxes. Led to the downfall.
Impact of the Revolution on religion
Most states adopted the principle of seperation of church and state. The anglican church was disestablished in the South and only in three new england states did the Congressional Churhc continue to receive state support from a religious tax. This practice was finally discountined in New England in the early 19th century. Freedom of religion.
Accomplishemnts of Articles
-Winning the War, Land Ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinace of 1787
Impact of the Revolution on Slavery
The institution of slavery contradicted the spirit and morale of the revolution, yet still continued to exist. The Continental Congress voted to abolish the importation of slaves, and most states went along with the prohibition. Many slaves had "taken their freedom" and ran away during the war. The british army freed the majority of Georgias salves. The northern patriotic army also accepted hundreds of African American volunteers.
Bank of North America
(1781) The first bank in the US, modeled on the Bank of England, helped to solve the wartime fiscal crisis. Instead of issuing paper currency through a land office, as farmers wanted, the bank issued money in the form of short-time loans backed by gold and silver plate
Had rivalries with other monarchs
sparked Britain's Western exploration
Sir Walter Raleigh
one of the sea dogs
tried ti start numerous colonies in the New World
vanished, only the word "croatoan" remained
believed to have joined a neighboring Indian tribe
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
showed English naval dominance
belief in "protestant wind"
continued Elizabeth's policies of exploration
granted charter to virginia company, jamestown named after him
everyone is motivated, all have something to gain/lose
first permanent English colony
started as expedition for valuables
Indian tribe surrounding jamestown
married Jon Rolfe, saved John Smith's life when he was captured
President of Jamestown, 1608
installed new work policies to ensure its survival
rich tobacco planter
House of Burgesses
first legislative assembly in America (at Jamestown)
heads of households get 50 acres, plus 50 more for each direct family member and/or servant brought to new world
encouraged the family unit in America
passed Maryland Toleration Act
First proprietary colony
meant as a refuge for roman catholics, became a religiously lenient state
Act of toleration of 1649
allowed christians of any kind to live in Maryland
poor conditions, even worse than England
first wave of servants became successful, but it became harder to succeed with each coming wave of servants
Life in the Chesapeake
revolved around tobacco, the cash crop
needed indentured servants and slaves
role of women and families in the Chesapeake
first settlers were all men, women and children shipped over later
"triangle trade" africa produced slaves, europe produced manufactured **** and america produced raw materials
fairly successful plantation owner
frustrated about not being able to take part in government
Governor William Berkeley
oppressed religious minorities (puritans, quakers)
rebellion against rigid-ing social structure
attracted the poor, who wanted more land
ship that transported English separatists (Pilgrims)
first governing document of plymouth colony
no one really cares about this ****
believed that the Church of England "wasn't Christian enough"
wanted no luxuries, to follow bible word for word
wanted to purify christian church
called for a total break from church of england
oliver cromwell was a separatist
second successful English colony in the New England region
eventually annexed by Massachusetts Bay colony
"City upon a hill"
"the eyes of all people are upon us"
used by Massachusetts Bay leaders, telling the colonists to set a good example for future settlers
founded Massachusetts Bay colony
governor multiple times
gave "city upon a hill" sermon
Protestant Work Ethic
believed that all jobs were important
anyone who worked hard could connect with God
led mass. bay colony to be more productive
results usually pre-determined
only male landowners/puritans could attend
Life in Puritan New England
not as bad as Puritan stereotype
could enjoy life, but not too much
preached crazy **** in her house, gained followers
banished from Massachusetts Bay colony for not conforming
ended up in New York, killed in Indian raid
proponent of religious freedom, started colony of Rhode Island as refuge
Rhode Island colony
looked down upon by other colonies
criminals and nonconformists sent there
tolerant, had fair dealings with Indians
new church designed to re-ignite religious interests of second and third generation colonists
Puritan family structure
father was always head of household
Mystic massacre where alex burned down an entire Indian village and 600 Indians were killed
stirred Indian resentment against Europeans
King Phillip's War
last significant Indian revolt for a while
discovered Hudson River
hired by Virginia Company and British East India Company to find water route to Pacific
Dutch West India Company
granted a charter for slave monopoly
helped Dutch colonization
Dutch colonial province that spanned the New England coastline
initially used as a series of trading posts
purchased Manhattan from Native Americans for his shoes
governor of New Netherland until it was seized by the English
wall street & broadway built while he was in office
Swedish colony along the Delaware River
comprised of aristocrats and plantation owners
Charlestown was a wealthy trading town
fertile soil, good for farming
divided amongst 8 proprietors
crown owed his father a debt for helping restore him to the throne
repaid in land
Quaker, religiously tolerant
charter included representative government
fair dealings with Indians, high religious tolerance
economy based on furs, timber
believed that no priest was needed in order to contact God
religious outcasts, sought refuge in New World
Social classes in the Chesapeake
social lines eventually became very rigid
slaves, servants, could not move up
highly lucractive, provided much-needed income
required a lot of attention and labor, thus the need for slaves
Crops in South Carolina
tobacco, rice, indigo
served as buffer for the colonies against Spanish and Indians
relatively lightly populated
had a ban on slavery until James Oglethorpe returned to England
founder of the colony of Georgia
had hoped for Georgia to become refuge for the poor
more like stoner rebellion
slave rebellion is SC, 80 slaves killed 50 white dudes, all got executed in the end
led to anti-slave-cruelty laws
acts passed by Parliament to restrict colonial trade
aimed to give England the benefits of colonial development
Dominion of New England
joined large amounts of british colonial land
created by James II as a way to enforce the Navigation acts, as well as protect from the French and hostile Indians more effectively
Sir Edmund Andros
governor in chief of the Dominion of New England
captured during the Boston Revolt, returned to be the governor of Virginia
William and Mary take England with no bloodshed
showed that Parliament had greater power than before
new ideas explaining natural occurrences with science
belief in God among intellectuals decreased
Sir Isaac Newton
sparked ideas about Enlightenment w/ gravity, laws of motion, etc
one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers
believed in liberty and equality
father of liberalism
major American political figure, one of the founding father
key figure in American Enlightenment (harnessing electricity, wave theory of light, meteorology, etc all disproved God's almighty power)
an attempt to not only restore but reform the church
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
speech that installed a new fear of God for commoners
by Jonathan Edwards (no thanks to alisom)
English Methodist leader who helped ignite the great awakening
had a spellbinding effect on normal people
Old lights and new lights
refers to the splitting of the Church denominations
new branches = new lights
The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in Newburgh, New York to address Congress about their pay. Unfortunately, the American government had little money after the Revolutionary War. They also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan.
Americans Economic Woes after Revolution
Reduced foreign trade and limited credit due to nonpayment of war debts contributed to widespread economic depression. The inability to levy taxes and printing worthless paper by many states added to the porblems. States placed tarrifs and restrictions on moving goods across state lines.
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
Land Ordinance of 1785
It set up how the new land gained after the revolution would be distributed and organized. The ordinance set up townships that were 36 sq miles where each plot of land was 1 sq mile and the 16th plot was sold for public schooling. The action was a huge success for the new government; it prevented a second revolution and was used for the later frontier states.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention.
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
James Madison introduced this place which called for a national government that had unrestricted rights of legislation and taxation, the right to veto any state law, and use military force against the states. It also specified a bicameral legislature and fixed representation in both Houses who also named judges and the President
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Hamilton emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, Alexander Hamilton spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.
Of Connecticut worked out a compromise that he hoped would satisfy both the large and small states. His compromise called for the creation of a two-house legislature.
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
A type of political system in which legislative power is divided between a central or federal legislature and a number of state or provincial legislatures.
Necessary and Proper Clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
a compromise between northern and southern states that broke the deadlock over how slaves should be counted for purposes of representation. three fifths of slaves would be included in population totals, benefiting southern states that had the largest concentration of slaves by inflating their representation in the House of Representatives.
Federalists and Anti Federalists
Federalists FULLY supported the Constitution; the ANTI-Federalists wanted to add a Bill of Rights before approving the Constitution
The Federalists Papers
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
Bill of Rights
A formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1-10, and in all state constitutions.
Tariff Act of 1789
Tax on imports and all foreign shipping. It was meant to raise money and stimulate the merchant marine rather than to protect any industry.
Report on Public Credit
This was the first of three major reports on economic policy issued by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton on the request of Congress. The report analyzed the financial standing of the United States. Hamilton proposed a remarkable set of policies for handling the debt problem. All debts were to be paid at face value. The Federal government would assume all of the debts owed by the states, and it would be financed with new U.S. government bonds paying about 4% interest.
Assumption of the debt
to take all the debt and put it on the national governments debt in order to get the creditors on the national government's side. Jefferson wanted to assume the national debt
Loose v. Strict Construction
Strict Constructionists (Jeffersonians) believed in the strcit interpretation of the constitution
Loose Construction (Alexander Hamilton) didnt interpret the constitution literally.
Report on Manufactures
A proposal written by Hamilton promoting protectionism in trade by adding tariffs to imported goods in order to protect American industry Though congress did not do anything with it, the report later influenced later industrial policies.
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
US response to the French Revolution
Washington wanted to remain neutral. The Republicans supported the French and the Federalists supported the British.
Neutrality Act of 1793
an act stating the president's decision not to support the french against the English in the war between them during the french revolution
A French diplomat who came to the U.S. 1793 to ask the American government to send money and troops to aid the revolutionaries in the French Revolution. President Washington asked France to recall Gent after Gent began recruiting men and arming ships in U.S. ports. However, Washington later relented and allowed Gent U.S. citizenship upon learning that the new French government planned to arrest Gent.
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
Treaty of Greenville
This treaty between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio. Anthony Wayne was the American representative.
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
hamilton (secratry of treasury), jefferson (Secratary of state), henry knox (secretary of war)
A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues
The period of overseas conflict between the British and the US navies prior to the declaration of war in 1812.
Alien and Sedition Acts
acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
Election of 1800
Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes in the Electoral College, so the House of Representatives had to decide the outcome. The House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President.
served as the 3rd Vice President of the United States. Member of the Republicans and President of the Senate during his Vice Presidency. He was defamed by the press, often by writings of Hamilton. Challenged Hamilton to a duel in 1804 and killed him.
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a peaceful "revolution."