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The body contains ____bones and more than _____ muscles

movement,posture,joint stability, and heat production

Functions of the muscular system are:

to provide a framework for the body, protect the soft body parts such as the brain, store calcium, and produce blood cells

Functions of the skeletal system are:

Periosteum

outermost layer of the bone, made up of fibrous tissue

compact bone

dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum

cancellous (spongy) bone

contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone

endosteum

membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone

diaphysis

shaft of the long bones

epiphysis

end of each long bone

bone marrow

material found in the cavities of bones

red marrow

thick, bloodlike material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones; location of the blood cell formation

yellow marrow

soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones

maxilla

upper jawbone

mandible

lower jawbone

vertebral column

made up of bones called vertebrae (pl) or vertebra (sing.) through which the spinal cord runs. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord, supports the head, and provides points of attachment for ribs and muscles

cervical vertebrae(C1 to C7)

first set of seven bones, forming the neck

thoracic vertebrae (TI to T12)

second set of 12 vertebrae. They articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine.

lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5)

third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine.

sacrum

next five vertebrae, which fuse together to form a triangular bone positioned between the two hip bones

coccyx

four vertebrae fused together to form the tailbone

lamina (pl. laminae)

part of the vertebral arch

clavicle

collarbone

scapula

shoulder blade

acromion process

extension of the scapula, which forms the high point of the shoulder

sternum

breastbone

xiphoid process

lower portion of the sternum

humerus

upper arm bone

ulna and radius

lower arm bones

olecranon process

projection at the upper end of the ulna that forms the bony point of the elbow

carpal bones

wrist bones

metacarpal bones

hand bones

phalanges (sing. phalanx)

finger and toe bones

pelvic bone, hip bone

made up of three bones fused together

ischium

lower, rear portion on which one sits

ilium

upper, wing-shaped part on each side

pubis

anterior portion of the pelvic bone

acetabulum

large socket in the pelvic bone for the head of the femur

femur

upper leg bone

tibia and fibula

lower leg bones

patella (pl. patellae)

kneecap

tarsal bones

ankle bones

calcaneus

heel bone

metatarsal bones

foot bones

articular cartilage

smooth layer of firm, fibrous tissue covering the contacting surface of joints

meniscus

crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee

intervertebral disk

cartilaginous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine

pubic symphysis

cartilaginous joint at which two pubic bones come together

synovia

fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in the joint cavities

bursa (pl. bursae)

fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another

ligament

flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint

tendon

band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone

aponeurosis

strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone

skeletal muscles (also known as striated muscles)

attached to bones by tendons and make body movement possible. Skeletal muscles produce action by pulling and working in pairs. They are also known as voluntary muscles because we have control over these muscles

smooth muscles (also known as unstriated muscles)

located in internal organs such as the walls of blood vessels and the digestive tract. They are also called involuntary muscles because they respond to impulses from the autonomic nerves and are not controlled voluntarily

cardiac muscle (known as myocardium)

forms most of the wall of the heart. Its involuntary contraction produces the heartbeat

abduction

moving away from the midline

adduction

moving toward the midline

inversion

turning inward

eversion

turning outward

extension

movement in which a limb is placed in a straight position

flexion

movement in which a limb is bent

pronation

movement that turns the palm down

supination

movement that turns the palm up

rotation

turning around its own axis

carp/o

carpals (wrist bones)

clavic/o, clavicul/o

clavicle (collarbone)

cost/o

rib

crani/o

cranium (skull)

femor/o

femur (upper leg bone) (NOTE: the "u" in femur changes to an "o" in the word root femor)

fibul/o

fibula (lower leg bone) (perone/o is also a word root for fibula)

humer/o

humerus (upper arm bone)

ili/o

ilium

ischi/o

ischium

lumb/o

loin, lumbar region of the spine

mandibul/o

mandible (lower jawbone)

maxill/o

maxilla (upper jawbone)

patell/o

patella (kneecap)

pelv/i, pelv/o

pelvis, pelvic bone

phalang/o

phalanges (finger or toe bones)

pub/o

pubis

rachi/o

spine, vertebral column

radi/o

radius (lower arm bone)

sacr/o

sacrum

scapul/o

scapula (shoulder blade)

spondyl/o, vertebr/o

vertebra

stern/o

sternum (breastbone)

tars/o

tarsals (ankle bones)

tibi/o

tibia (lower leg bone)

uln/o

ulna (lower arm bone)

aponeur/o

aponeurosis

arthr/o

joint

burs/o

bursa (cavity)

chondr/o

cartilage

disk/o

intervertebral disk

menisc/o

meniscus (crescent)

synovi/o

synovia, synovial membrane

ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o

tendon

ankyl/o

crooked, stiff, bent

kinesi/o

movement, motion

kyph/o

hump (increased convexity of the spine)

lamin/o

lamina (thin, flat plate or layer)

lord/o

bent forward (increased concavity of the spine)

myel/o

bone marrow (also means spinal chord)

my/o, myos/o

muscle

oste/o

bone

petr/o

stone

scoli/o

crooked, curved

inter-

between

supra-

above

sym-, syn-

together, joined

-asthenia

weakness

-clasia, -clasis, -clast

break

-desis

surgical fixation, fusion

-physis

growth

-schisis

split, fissure

ankylosis

abnormal condition of stiffness (often referring to fixation of a joint, such as the result of chronic rheumatoid arthritis)

arthritis

inflammation of a joint. (The most common forms of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.)

bursitis

inflammation of a bursa

chondromalacia

softening of cartilage

cranioschisis

fissure of the skull (congenital)

diskitis

inflammation of an intervertebral disk (also spelled discitis)

fibromyalgia

pain in the fibrous tissues and muscles (a common condition characterized by widespread pain and stiffness of muscles, fatigue, and disturbed sleep)

kyphosis

abnormal condition of a hump (increased convexity of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side) (also called hunchback or humpback)

lordosis

abnormal condition of bending forward (increased concavity of the lumbar spine as viewed from the side) (also called swayback)

maxillitis

inflammation of the maxilla

meniscitis

inflammation of the meniscus

myasthenia

muscle weakness

myeloma

tumor of the bone marrow (malignant)

osteitis

inflammation of the bone

osteoarthritis (OA)

inflammation of the bone and joint

osteochondritis

inflammation of the bone and cartilage

osteofibroma

tumor of the bone and fibrous tissue (benign)

osteomalacia

softening of bones

osteomyelitis

inflammation of the bone and bone marrow (caused by bacterial infection)

osteopenia

abnormal reduction of bone mass (caused by inadequate replacement of bone lost to normal bone lysis and can lead to osteoporosis)

osteopetrosis

abnormal condition of stonelike bones (marblelike bones caused by increased formation of bone)

osteosarcoma

malignant tumor of the bone

polymyositis

inflammation of many muscles

rachischisis

fissure of the vertebral column (congenital) (also called spina bifida)

rhabdomyolysis

dissolution of striated muscle (The severity of the condition and the degree of weakness and pain vary. Some causes of the illness are trauma, extreme exertion, and drug toxicity; in severe cases renal failure can result.)

sarcopenia

abnormal reduction of connective tissue (such as loss of skeletal muscle mass in the elderly)

scoliosis

abnormal condition of (lateral) a curved (spine)

spondylarthritis

inflammation of the vertebral joints

spondylosis

abnormal condition of the vertebra (a general term used to describe changes to the spine from osteoarthrits or ankylosis)

synoviosarcoma

malignant tumor of the synovial membrane

tendinitis

inflammation of a tendon (also spelled tendonitis)

tenosynovitis

inflammation of the tendon and synovial membrane

ankylosing spondylitis

form of arthritis that first affects the spine and adjacent structures and that, as it progresses, causes a forward bend of the spine (also called Strumpell-Marie arthritis or disease, or rheumatoid spondylitis)

bunion

abnormal prominence of the joint at the base of the great toe. It is a common problem, often hereditary or caused by poorly fitted shoes (also called hallux valgus)

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