APUSH ch. 5 Indentifications

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Albany Plan of Union

Mid 1754 seven colonies north of VA met in Albany New York to plan joint defense from the French. Created proposal called Albany Plan of Union: Grand Council representing all of the colonial assemblies and with a president appointed by the king of England which would decide on military policies and tax the colonies if needed.

Acadians, Cajuns

- French colonists who were now British subjects. Refused to comply with British demands so they fled their homes with very little belongings, burned their villages and were deported to MA and PA. Facing anti-French and anti-catholic sentiments they moved to Louisiana and became the Cajuns

Lexington & Concord

British headed towards Concord to seize military supplies. British were confronted by minutemen at Lexington (8 colonists died). British got to Concord, found few munitions but were chased back to Boston by minutemen.

Second Continental Congress

Wrote Olive Branch Petition. Set up a Continental Army headed by George Washington.

Pontiac's Uprising

1763 After French and Indian war natives lost power because they could no longer manipulate Britain and France against each other. Afraid they would turn into subjects of the English. Pontiac, an Ottawa Indian, led a series of attacks against British forts. Ended due to food/ammunition shortages and a smallpox epidemic at Fort Pitt (occurred when British deliberately gave infected blankets at a peace parlay)

Proclamation Line of 1763

Ordered by George III to keep more control over everything happening in the colonies. Wanted to regulate all expansion. Made natives happy b/c they were able to keep their land west of the Proclamation line but colonists were mad b/c slowed expansion and the crown took control of their western lands

King George III

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Writs of Assistance, James Otis

1760. Royal governor of MA made Writ. Search warrant that would seize illegally imported goods. Considered illegal b/c no probably cause for suspicion was needed. James Otis hired by Boston merchants to challenge constitutionality of the warrants.

George Grenville

British Prime Minister. Ordered navy to enforce Sugar Act. Rationalized taxing American's w/o representation by saying that they were represented by Parliament who looked out for their interests.

Stamp Act Congress

Nine colonial assemblies met in NYC. Agreed that Parliament lacked authority to levy taxes outside of Britain and deny a jury trial. Effective intercolonial meeting.

King George's War

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Virtual Representation

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Patrick Henry

VA lawyer/planter and great orator. Urged VA House of Burgesses to deny Parliament's power to tax the colonies

Loyal Nine & Sons of Liberty

Local Nine: Bostonian middle class artisans to fight against the stamp Act. Decided to convince stamp distributors to resign due to the tax, grew violent. Sons of Liberty: groups similar to the Local Nine but throughout the colonies. After violent attacks decided to limit their destruction only to property (to not alienate the wealthy opponents of the stamp acts)

Declaratory Act

Passed in conjunction with repealing the Stamp Act. Stated that parliament has power to legislate for the colonies "in all cases"

Charles Townshend

Treasurer of England who succeeded William Pitt.

John Wilkes

London member of Parliament who denounced George III's policies. Fled to France after publishing a piece offending the government. Came back to England in 1768 and ran for parliament but was arrested. Loved by the colonists

American Board of Commissioners

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Customs Racketeering

over eagerness to convict and confiscate goods from merchants led to commissioners enforcing navigation acts with illegally.

Samuel Adams

MA assemblyman wanted to create a "Christian Sparta"

John Adams

Acted as lawyer for British troops involved in Boston Massacre since he despised crowd actions.

Spinning Bees

In response to non-consumption agreements involving English cloth, many women held spinning bees to make their own cloth (even rich women who would not usually spin cloth participated)

Lord North

New British prime minister who wanted to stabilize relations between England and colonies. Repealed most of the Townshend Acts (to end boycott) but kept tax for tea (to remind colonists of Britain's control)

John Hancock

Very rich Boston merchant who strongly opposed taxation

Crispus Attucks

African/native American seaman who led a crowd after the initial shooting of the Boston massacre, died during this exchange

Committees of Correspondence

Way to exchange information and coordinate measures against British among a multitude of towns

Tea Act

To save the British East India Company Lord North passed the Tea Act which removed taxes on tea coming into England, thus lowering the price of tea in the colonies

Boston Tea Party

50 men disguised as Mohawk Indians dumped 45 tons of tea into Boston Harbor to go against the Tea Act. Was calm (not a mob)

Suffolk Resolves

Set of principles set in MA for passive rebellion. Stated that colonies did not have to follow coercive acts, should collect their own taxes until MA charter was restored, and that they should be ready to defend themselves if there was an attack by the British.

Continental Association

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Minutemen

Local militia who could instantly respond to an emergency

Paul Revere

Courier to tell colonists how British were arriving at Concord

Lexington & Concord

British headed towards Concord to seize military supplies. British were confronted by minutemen at Lexington (8 colonists died). British got to Concord, found few munitions but were chased back to Boston by minutemen.

Olive Branch Petition

Drafted at the Second Continental Congress. A very polite "loyal message" to King George III demanding: a cease-fire at Boston, repeal of the Coercive Acts, negotiations to discuss American rights.

Thomas Paine, Common Sense

Thomas Paine was a teacher who moved to America in 1774. Common Sense (see outline)

Second Continental Congress

Wrote Olive Branch Petition. Set up a Continental Army headed by George Washington.

Declaration of Independence

Written by Thomas Jefferson to officially break ties with England. Citing Locke, declaration said England violated its contract with the colonies and therefore could replace it with their own government.

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