Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty that secured Spanish title to lands in Americas by dividing them with Portugal.
Founded in 1565, it's the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in US territory
Belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good
Roanoke Island, NC
Colony founded by Sir Walter Raleigh that mysteriously disappeared in the 1580's.
Forerunner of the modern corporation that enabled investors to pool financial capital for colonial ventures.
Royal document granting a specified group the right to form a colony and guaranteeing settlers their rights as English citizens.
Penniless people obligated to forced labor for a fixed number of years, often in exchange for passage to the New World.
Act of Toleration
Maryland statute of 1649 that granted religious freedom to all Christians, but not Jews and atheists.
Poor farmers in North Carolina and elsewhere who occupied land and raised crops without gaining legal title to the soil
Italian-born explorer who believed he arrived off the coast of Asia rather than on an unknown continent.
Colony that was called "a vale of humility between two mountains of conceit".
Colony that turned to disease-resistant African-American slaves for labor in its extensive rice plantations.
Riverbank site where Virginia Company settlers planted the first permanent English colony.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
Treaty Between England and the Colonies, formally ended the American Revolutionary War.
Battle of Yorktown
The last major battle of the war, in which American and French troops bombarded Yorktown and forced Cornwallis to surrender his army.
Battle of Saratoga
The battle which was the turning point of the Revolution; after the colonists won this major victory, the French decided to support the colonies with money, troops, ships, etc.
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Second Continental Congress
The Continental Congress that convened in May 1775, approved the Declaration of Independence, and served as the only agency of national government during the Revolutionary War.
Lexington and Concord
In 1775, conflicts between Massachusetts Colonists and British soldiers that started the Revolutionary War.
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
Adopted by the First Continental Congress, it promised obedience to the king, but denied parliament's right to tax the colonies.
First Continental Congress
(1774) Against the Intolerable Acts, it was meant to coordinate a protest. 55 delegates sent from 12 of the colonies (excluding Georgia) to write a list of their rights and grievances to the King as a petition. It united the colonies and created a sense of togetherness.
Law which established Roman-Catholicism as the official religion in Quebec and gave it more freedom. Angered the colonists, who felt that they are threatened and should deserve better.
Also known as the Intolerable Acts. Several British laws designed to punish colonists for their role in the Boston Tea Party. The most famous of the acts shut down Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for.
1773 act which eliminated import tariffs on tea entering England and allowed the British East India Company to play monopoly in America tea business. Led to the Boston Tea Party.
Committees of Correspondence
Samuel Adams started the first committee in Boston in 1772 to spread propaganda and secret information by way of letters, which were extremely effective, and a few years later almost every colony had one. This kept the opposition alive.
(1770) British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them; five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
A colonial lawyer who defended (usually for free) colonial merchants who were accused of smuggling. Argued against the writs of assistance and the Stamp Act. "No taxation without representation."
Founder of the Sons of Liberty, he is one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence.
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. However, he is against revolution, and refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Writs of Assistance
A part of the Townshend Acts that approved the customs officers to search in ships or private homes for smuggles without warranty.
Charles Townshend's tax for the Americans on paper, paint, lead, glass, and tea. The colonists protested again as a result; Boston Tea Party engendered.
Act passed in 1766 right after the repeal of the Stamp Act; stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
Sons of Liberty
Secret society formed by Samuel Adams to protest new taxes passed by Parliament. It led the Boston Tea Party and threatened tax collectors; also firm supporters of independence.
No taxation without representation
Otis' claim that states taxes were unjust, insisted only they or their elected representatives had the right to pass taxes, and the parliament had no right to tax them.
An act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents; raised much protests.
1765; required colonists to provide food and shelter to British troops stationed in the colonies.
(1764) British was deeply in debt for the French & Indian War, so the English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. The Colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and bribing tax collectors.
Appointed by King George III as the Prime Minister, he had the opinion that the colonists should obey the laws and pay a part of the cost of defending and administering the British empire; passed the Sugar and Stamp Acts.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
A 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area.
British colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II which relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs; planted the seed of American self government.
Peace of Paris (1763)
Ended French and Indian War. The French ceded to Great Britain some of their West Indian islands and most of their colonies in India. Canada, all French territory east of Mississippi to Britain except New Orleans; all land west of Mississippi plus New Orleans to Spain.
Albany Plan of Union
Plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown.
A fort built by the French in Pittsburgh and still stands today; it was involved in the first encounter of the Seven Years War with George Washington.
French and Indian War
War fought between France and England between 1754 and 1763 over territorial claims in North America; the British victory and debts led directly to the later taxes.
John Peter Zenger
Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, He was found not guilty. This court case was the basis for the America's freedom of speech and press.
Poor Richard's Almanac
Benjamin Franklin's publish containing many sayings called from thinkers of the ages emphasizing such home spun virtues as thrift industry morality and common sense.
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and one of the Founding Fathers. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
One of the preachers of the great awakening (key figure of "New Light"); known for his talented voice inflection and ability to bring many a person to their knees.
An American theologian and congregational clergyman whose sermons stirred the religious revival (Great Awakening); known for sinners in the hands of an angry god sermon.
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
The route between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent raw materials to Europe, and Europe sent guns and rum to Africa.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
A bloodless conflict in which the Massachusetts people imprisoned the corrupt governor: Sir Edmund Andros.
Dominion of New England
1686, the British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros); ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and to export more than to import.
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony, which is a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
William Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all.
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preach a doctrine of pacifism, inner divinity, and social equity; under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania. They were loathed by the majority.
King Charles' pay back to his supporters (restorers) with land in America. Include Carolina, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.
King Philip's War
1675, a series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
New England Confederation
Formed in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.
A Puritan church policy of 1662, which allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members. Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
He was as Puritan clergyman who acquired the patent for a colony in Massachusetts in 1637; cofounder of New Haven.
Fundamental Order of Connecticut
Ordered in 1639, this governmental system was adopted by the Connecticut puritans that included representative assemblies and a popularly-elected governor; referred to as the first written constitution of America.
A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.
An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson.
Religious radical who attracted a large following in mass. Stated that people can achieve salvation without the church, Convicted of Antinomian heresy. Banished to Rhode Island in 1638.
English clergyman and colonist who was expelled from Massachusetts for criticizing Puritanism; he founded Providence in 1636 and obtained a royal charter for Rhode Island in 1663.
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
A revolt against powerful colonial authority in Jamestown by Nathaniel Bacon and a group of landless frontier settlers that resulted in the burning of Jamestown in 1676; the people started to find new labor sources afterwards.
A Governor of Virginia appointed by King Charles I, he was governor from 1641-1652 and 1660-1677. Berkeley enacted friendly policies towards the Indians that led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676 (hanged 20 rebellions).
Maryland Act of Toleration
1649, ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
Types of colonies
Royal colonies were owned by king, ex: Virginia; Proprietary Colonies were owned by individual, ex: Pennsylvania and Maryland; Corporate Colonies owned by group of citizens, ex: Rhode island.
Virginia House of Burgesses
1619, first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia. Served as an early model of elected government in the New World.
Great Puritan Migration
Many Puritans migrated from England to North America during the 1620s to the 1640s due to belief that the Church of England was beyond reform. Ended in 1642 when King Charles I effectively shut off emigration to the colonies with the start of the English Civil War.
City upon a hill
A phrase that is associated with John Winthrop's sermon "A Model of Christian Charity," given in 1630. Winthrop warned the Puritan colonists of New England who were to found the Massachusetts Bay Colony that their new community would be a "city upon a hill," watched by the world.
The first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony. Puritan who opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and was its first president.
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, Between 1621-1657, he developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Helped finding and governing Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
Father Junipero Sera
1769, led Spanish missionaries (founded at San Diego) the first of a chain of 21missions that wound up the coast of San Fran Bay. He and his friars Christianized 300 thousand Californians. Mission Indians adopted Christianity, but lost culture and lives.
Joint stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
The Italian sailor who corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of america as a new world. America is named after him.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506).
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England.
Astrolabe, compass, quadrant
Navigation tools that helped the era of exploration to boom; resulted in the dicover of the New World.
G. Calvert is also known as Lord Baltimore (and a Catholic), invested in the Virginia Company and eventually got land for his family; helped finding Maryland. Cecil Calvert is his son, the second Lord Baltimore; actually found and ran Maryland.
The Puritans are protestants in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization. A group of Puritans that wanted to completely separate from the Church of England are the Separists.
The pair of joint stock companies in North America with the purpose to settle in the New World; Virginia Company of London and Virginia Company of Plymouth.
Declaration of the Causes and Necessities for Taking Up Arms
A declaration by the representatives of the united colonies of North America, now met in Congress at Philadelphia, setting forth the causes and necessity of their taking up arms. " Our cause is just, our union is perfect"
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won.
Opponents of the 1787 Constitution, they cast the document as antidemocratic, objected to the subordination of the states to the central government, and feared encroachment on individuals' liberties in the absence of a bill of rights.
Articles of Confederation (1781)
First American constitution that established the United States as a loose confederation of states under a weak national Congress, which was not granted the power to regulate commerce or collect taxes. The Articles were replaced by a more efficient Constitution in 1789.
Willingness on the part of citizens to sacrifice personal self-interest for the public good. Deemed a necessary component of a successful republic.
Body of written law enacted through legislative statutes or constitutional provisions. In countries where civil law prevails, judges must apply the statutes precisely as written.
Laws that originate from court rulings and customs, as opposed to legislative statutes. The United States Constitution grew out of the Anglo-American common law tradition and thus provided only a general organizational framework for the new federal government.
To separate an official state church from its connection with the government. Following the Revolution, all states disestablished the Anglican Church, though some New England states maintained established Congregational Churches well into the nineteenth century.
Proponents of the 1787 Constitution, they favored a strong national government, arguing that the checks and balances in the new Constitution would safeguard the people's liberties.
Great Compromise (1787)
Popular term for the measure which reconciled the New Jersey and Virginia plans at the constitutional convention, giving states proportional representation in the House and equal representation in the Senate. The compromise broke the stalemate at the convention and paved the way for subsequent compromises over slavery and the Electoral College.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Provided for the sale of land in the Old Northwest and earmarked the proceeds toward repaying the national debt.
New Jersey Plan (1787)
"Small-state plan" put forth at the Philadelphia convention, proposing equal representation by state, regardless of population, in a unicameral legislature. Small states feared that the more populous states would dominate the agenda under a proportional system.
Northwest Ordinance (1787)
Created a policy for administering the Northwest Territories. It included a path to statehood and forbade the expansion of slavery into the territories.
Territories acquired by the federal government from the states, encompassing land northwest of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes. The well-organized management and sale of the land in the territories under the land ordinances of 1785 and 1787 established a precedent for handling future land acquisitions.
Shays's Rebellion (1786)
Armed uprising of western Massachusetts debtors seeking lower taxes and an end to property foreclosures. Though quickly put down, the insurrection inspired fears of "mob rule" among leading Revolutionaries.
Society of the Cincinnati (1783)
Exclusive, hereditary organization of former officers in the Continental Army. Many resented the pretentiousness of the order, viewing it as a vestige of pre-Revolutionary traditions.
The Federalist (1788)
Collection of essays written by John Jay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton and published during the ratification debate in New York to lay out the Federalists' arguments in favor of the new Constitution. Since their publication, these influential essays have served as an important source for constitutional interpretation.
three-fifths compromise (1787)
Determined that each slave would be counted as three-fifths of a person for the purpose of apportioning taxes and representation. The compromise granted disproportionate political power to Southern slave states.
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1786)
Measure enacted by the Virginia legislature prohibiting state support for religious institutions and recognizing freedom of worship. Served as a model for the religion clause of the first
Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio
Three territories where most of the trans-Appalachian settlers settled.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Organized the Supreme Court, federal district and circuit courts, and an attorney general
Bank of the United States
Government would be a major stockholder of this bank, and it would print paper money for the country. Supported by Hamilton
Federalist version of interpreting the Constitution, what the Constitution didn't forbid it permitted
Rebellion in Pennsylvania against Hamilton's taxes on whiskey, much like the Stamp Act Rebellions. After crushing it, Washington gained new respect
Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans and Hamiltonian Federalists
Two political parties after Washington's first administration
French Revolution at first delighted colonists, but after the Reign of Terror began, colonists grew disgusted of the Revolution.
French Revolution at first delighted colonists, but after the Reign of Terror began, colonists grew disgusted of the Revolution. (c)
Washington's Neutrality Proclamation
Declared that war must be avoided, as the United States was too militarily disjointed to engage in war.
Citizen Edmond Genêt
French representative who, against the Neutrality Proclamation, gathered armies against Spanish Florida, Louisiana, and Canada.
An alliance of eight Indian nations who terrorized Americans and were given firearms by the British
General "Mad Anthony" Wayne
Defeated Miamis at the Battle of Fallen Timbers when British refused to shelter them.
Treaty of Greenville
Indians give up vast tracts of the Old Northwest (Indiana and Idaho) in this treaty
Royal Navy impressed American seamen and seized merchant ships, angering Americans.
Royal Navy impressed American seamen and seized merchant ships, angering Americans. (c)
Treaty in a desperate attempt to avert war with Britain, was not very effective, and much was conceded to Britain
Pinckney's Treaty of 1795
Spain's hasty treaty with America, fearing an Anglo-American alliance, granting America almost everything it wanted
X, Y, and Z
French go-betweens in negotiations between America and France to discuss the French mistreatment of Americans
French proposal was ridiculous, and French were rejected. An unofficial war ensued.
French proposal was ridiculous, and French were rejected. An unofficial war ensued. (c)
Laws against hostile or dangerous foreign immigrants, gave government power to deport or imprison immigrants in times of hostilities and in times of peace
An act that prohibited and called for harsh punishment on whoever falsely defamed government officials or impeded on the policies of the government
Stated that the thirteen sovereign states, in creating the government, had entered into a contract that allowed the government to rule while states would regulate it. Was used to reject the Alien and Sedition Acts
Anti-Federalist version of interpreting the Constitution, Constitution should be taken word for word.
Necessary and Proper
One of the most controversial clauses of the Constitution governing the power of the Congress
First census of the United States recorded about 4 million people.
First census of the United States recorded about 4 million people. (c)
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Formal accusation by the lower house of a legislature against a public official, the first step in removal from office.
Jefferson came up with the Embargo Act which cut off all trade with all countries. Jefferson hoped this would force the English to come to his terms and stop stealing American sailors. This, however, did not work and greatly hurt American trade.
Macon's Bill No. 2
opened trade with britain and france, said if either nation repealed its restrictions on neutral shipping the US would halt trade with the other, didn't work
An American politician and adventurer. He was a formative member of the Democratic-Republican Party in New York and a strong supporter of Governor George Clinton. He is remembered not so much for his tenure as the third Vice President, under Thomas Jefferson, as for his duel with Alexander Hamilton, resulting in Hamilton's death. He is also known for his trial and acquittal on charges of treason. Jefferson's vice-president for his first term; not voted into a second term because of radical ideas and ventures that threatened to break up the Union and resulted in the death of Alexander Hamilton.
a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813)
American explorer who aided Meriwether Lewis in an expedition through the Louisiana Purchase
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
He was the fifth President of the United States. He is the author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars
Ruler of France, sold Louisisana to the Americans after reciving it from the Spanish
He was the U.S. Minister to France from 1801 to 1804. He negotiated the purchase of the Louisiana Territory.
Jefferson's Sec. of Treasury and a financial genius --> helped to cut the national debt nearly in half
explored upper Mississippi River, Arkansas River, parts of present-day Colorado and New Mexico. Viewed Mtn peaks above Colorado Plains. Mountain today called Pikes Peak.
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835. Presided over cases such as Marbury V. Madison; judicial review
a strong supporter of the American Revolution, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, an ardent Federalist, and the only Supreme Court Justice ever to be impeached. A lawyer by proffesion, in 1796 he was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court by president Washington. This was after he served as Chief Justice of the General Court of Maryland in 1791. In 1804, for alleged prejudice against the Jeffersonians in treason and sedition trials. The senate, however, in a decision that indicated reluctance to remove judges for purely political reasons, did not convict him, and he remained on the court until his death.
3rd President; leader of Democratic-Republicans; created Jeffersonian republicanism; 1st President to take office in Washington D.C.
named a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia; sued Madison when he learned that his commission was being shelved by Madison (Secretary of State)
was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
Battle of Austerlitz
battle between Austria, Russia, and France; the French under Napoleon defeated the Russian armies of Czar Alexander I and the Austrian armies of Emperor Francis II
Judiiciary Act of 1801
passed by Federalist congress; created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial
Orders in Council
closed European ports under French control to foreign shipping, unless the vessels 1st stopped at a British port
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
a nick name given to group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence, because judges serve for life instead of limited terms
1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.
Louisiana Purchase Treaty
1803, the U.S. spends $15 million to buy a large amount of land from the west of the Mississippi from France; doubled the size of the United States
It is the term used to describe the United States Navy's fleet of small gunboats, leading up to and during the War of 1812.
American System (1820s)
Henry Clay's three-pronged system to promote American industry. Clay advocated a strong banking system, a protective tariff and a federally funded transportation network.
Anglo-American Convention (1818)
Signed by Britain and the United States, the pact allowed New England fishermen access to Newfoundland fisheries, established the northern border of Louisiana territory and provided for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country for ten years.
Cohens v. Virginia (1821)
Case that reinforced federal supremacy by establishing the right of the Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme courts in questions involving the powers of the federal government.
Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)
Convention of major European powers to redraw the boundaries of continental Europe after the defeat of Napoleonic France.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
Supreme Court case that sustained Dartmouth University's original charter against changes proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature, thereby protecting corporations from domination by state governments.
Era of Good Feelings (18116-1824)
Popular name for the period of one-party, Republican, rule during James Monroe's presidency. The term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery and the national bank.
Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
Established firmer protection for private property and asserted the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the federal Constitution.
Florida Purchase Treaty (Adams-Onís Treaty) (1819)
Under the agreement, Spain ceded Florida to the United States, which, in exchange, abandoned its claims to Texas.
Treaty of Ghent (1815)
Ended the War of 1812 in a virtual draw, restoring prewar borders but failing to address any of the grievances that first brought America into the war.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Suit over whether New York State could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that Congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce.
Hartford Convention (1814-1815)
Convention of Federalists from five New England states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented the strength of Southern and Western interests in Congress and in the White House.
Land Act of 1820
Fueled the settlement of the Northwest and Missouri territories by lowering the price of public land. Also prohibited the purchase of federal acreage on credit, thereby eliminating one of the causes of the Panic of 1819.
Legal doctrine which holds that the federal government can use powers not specifically granted or prohibited in the Constitution to carry out its constitutionally-mandated responsibilities.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Supreme Court case that strengthened federal authority and upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States by establishing that the State of Maryland did not have power to tax the bank.
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but preserved the balance between North and South by carving free-soil Maine out of Massachusetts and prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase, north of the line of 36°30.
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Statement delivered by President James Monroe, warning European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. The United States largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought unfettered access to Latin American markets.
Battle of New Orleans (1815)
Resounding victory of American forces against the British, restoring American confidence and fueling an outpouring of nationalism. Final battle of the War of 1812.
panic of 1819
Severe financial crisis brought on primarily by the efforts of the Bank of the United States to curb overspeculation on western lands. It disproportionately affected the poorer classes, especially in the West, sowing the seeds of Jacksonian Democracy.
Widely used term for the institution of American slavery in the South. Its use in the first half of the 19th century reflected a growing division between the North, where slavery was gradually abolished, and the South, where slavery became increasingly entrenched.
Rush-Bagot agreement (1817)
Signed by Britain and the United States, it established strict limits on naval armaments in the Great Lakes, a first step in the full demilitarization of the U.S.-Canadian border, completed in the 1870s.
Russo-American Treaty (1824)
Fixed the line of 54°40' as the southernmost boundary of Russian holdings in North America.
Tallmadge amendment (1819)
Failed proposal to prohibit the importation of slaves into Missouri territory and pave the way for gradual emancipation. Southerners vehemently opposed the amendment, which they perceived as a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
Tariff of 1816
First protective tariff in American history, created primarily to shield New England manufacturers from the inflow of British goods after the War of 1812.
War of 1812 (1812-1815)
Fought between Britain and the United States largely over the issues of trade and impressment. Though the war ended in a relative draw, it demonstrated America's willingness to defend its interests militarily, earning the young nation newfound respect from European powers.