List the 5 perspectives on defining abnormality.
1.) Cultural Relativism
4.) Mental Illness
different things are normal for different cultures. For example, children sleeping with parents.
rare behaviors are abnormal—the problem is, what is rare and that rare behaviors aren't always problematic (ex. virtuoso pianist)
Behaviors are abnormal only if the individual experiences discomfort and wishes to get rid of the behavior. The problem is, lack of insight and what about behaviors that endanger others
Behaviors are abnormal that result from mental illness/disease—assumes abnormality is clear and identifiable.
Represents the consensus of mental health professionals. Composed of 3D's: dysfunction, distress, and deviance.
Describe historical examples of the implications of supernatural and biological theories on the interpretation & treatment of abnormal behavior.
o Supernatural theories: divine intervention, curses, demonic possession, and personal sin
o Biological theories: similar to physical disease, breakdown of some symptoms of the body
o Used trephination, drilling holes in the skull, as a means to let out the spirit in one's head that was causing him or her to behave in a bizarre manner.
The moral treatment movement and its leaders
The moral treatment movement of the 18th century was brought on by the brutal treatment of patients in asylums.
William Tuke created "the retreat" one of the first treatment places—a "return to nature"
Dorthea Dix helped establish more than 30 mental institutions
Phillipe Pineal made new rules—no chains, clean sunny rooms, etc.
Hippocrates and other early Greek physicians
rejected the supernatural explanations and instead engaged in things similar to what we do now.
was the founder of American Psychiatry, who worked in an asylum and ran experiments on the patients he left there.
created "the retreat" one of the first treatment places—a "return to nature"
helped establish more than 30 mental institutions
made new rules—no chains, clean sunny rooms, etc.
the study of the unconscious—presented the idea that you can help solve people's problems through talking to them
treatment for abnormality that consists of a therapist and client discussing the client's symptoms and casuses
What is behaviorism and who are the important individuals associated with it?
o Behaviorism is the study of the reinforcements and punishments of behavior
o Wilhem Wundt—1st experimental psychology lab
o Ivan Pavlov—Classical Conditioning (dogs and saliva)
o John Watson—classical conditioning and phobias
o EI Thorndike and BF Skinner—operant or instrumental conditioning using reinforcement principles and schedules
Describe how Watson's approach to explaining abnormal behaviors marked a departure from biological & psychoanalytic theories.
Watson rejected psychoanalytic and biological theories of abnormal behaviors, such as phobias, and explained them entirely on the basis of the individual's history of conditioning. He claimed he could train any healthy child to become any kind of adult he wished.
Thoughts or beliefs
MD-- and can prescribe medication
PhD—research/limited prescription privs in some states
Doctor of Psychology:
PsyD—similar to clinical without research
Marriage and Family Therapist:
M.A and specializes in families, couples, and children
MA or MS and often work for gov agencies
Nursing degree and specialization in treatment of severe psychopathology
Clinical Psychology Studies
Cognitive Psychology Studies
Normal (and abnormal) Information Processing
Developmental Psychology Studies
Normal (and abnormal) development/learning processes
Social Psychology Studies
Group dynamics/processes—situational influence on behavior
A set of ideas the provides a framework for asking questions about a phenomenon, as well as gathering and interpreting information about that phenomenon
There can be vulnerability through biological, social, and psychological aspects. Biological being genes, biochemistry, brain anomalies; Social being maladaptive upbringing, chronic stress; Psychological being unconscious, conflicts, poor skills, and maladaptive cognitions. It sort of combines the nature V nurture debate.
List the 3 main aspects of the human body on which biological theories of mental disorders focus.
o Structural: abnormalities come from the brain's shape
o Biochemical: imbalances in neurotransmitters, hormones, etc
o Genetic: an accumulation of disordered genes leads to mental disorders
explain (in very general terms) the different ways neurotransmitters and hormones can affect psychological symptoms on the cellular level.
Neurotransmitters carry messages/impulses from one neuron to another and when there is too much or too little of a neurotransmitter/hormone it can cause disorders.
identical twins, 100% same genes
non-Identical twins/50% same genes
The probability that both twins have a disorder if one twin has the disorder
explain why the statistical phrase "correlation does not equal causation" relevant to the consideration of the biology of mental illness.
Because just because on thing happens at the same time as another does not mean that one thing causes or is even directly correlated with another.
Describe the main assumption of interpersonal theories of abnormality argued by Alfred Adler.
Argued that the primary motivation of humans is to belong to and participate in social groups.
Identify the specific ideas/constructs associated with Erik Erikson & John Bowlby.
o Erik Erikson: Psychosocial stages marked by conflicts leading to positive or negative development.
o John Bowlby: Attachment
What are the implications of both Family Systems Theory & Social Structural Theory for the format of treatments/interventions
Family theory and Social-Structural theory lead to changes in treatment/intervention such as family therapy,
All behavior, thoughts, & emotions are influenced to a large extent by unconscious processes. Humans have 2 basic drives—the libido and the aggressive. We are controlled by our id, ego, and superego. An error in one of the psychosexual stages of development leads to mental disorders.
Humanistic and Existential Theory
Humanistic assumes humans have an innate capacity for goodness, existential is similar except believe it's more complicated/difficult to be happy.
Argues reinforcements & punishments produce normal and abnormal behavior.
Events lead to thoughts which lead to behaviors and feelings. This leads to mental disorders through learned helplessness, thinking errors (dysfunctional global assumptions), etc.
Describe 3 potential meanings for the word psychoanalysis.
o A theory
o A method of investigating the mind
o A form of treatment
operates by the pleasure principle, to immediately satisfy drives
A part of the ID (which splits off) that operates by the reality principle seeking to gratify drives while remaining consistent with societal rules
a later divergence of the ID, the storehouse of rules and regulations of conduct
strategies the ego uses to disguise unconscious wishes (example: regression, rationalization, projection, etc)
What are the 3 main critiques of Freudian psychodynamic theories as presented by Karen Horney.
o 1.) Emphasis on sexual drives and anatomy to the exclusion of environmental and cultural influences
o 2.) Male as the prototypic human being
o 3.) Generalizing from tiny sample
What is Ivan Pavlov's original study including being able to identify the following elements in other scenarios: unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response.
Pavlov was originally trying to study salivary glands. However, he found that
Unconditioned Stimulus: Naturally produces a desired response --> Unconditioned response: natural response
Conditioned Stimulus: Previously neutral stimulus paired with US --> Conditioned Response: response in the presence of CS
the shaping of behaviors by providing rewards for desired behaviors and punishments for undesired behaviors
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule:
Pairing behaviors with reward/punishment every time
Partial Reinforcement Schedule:
pairing reward/punishment only sometimes
the elimination of a learned behavior (more difficult when behavior learned using a partial reinforcement schedule)
Define self-actualization as Carl Rogers characterizes it.
This concept implies that there is an internal, biological force to develop one's capacities and talents to the fullest.
Understand the basic idea of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
o Physiological needs -->
o Safety needs -->
o Love and belonging -->
o Esteem -->
some kind of manifestation of a phenomenon which indicates some kind of problem.
the over observable manifestations of some kind of biological disorder.
You learn about the syndrome because you can see it through the symptom. The combination of psychological symptoms can be called a syndrome and the syndrome is itself the disorder.
A determination of which of several possible disorders an individual may be suffering.
the process of gathering information about symptoms and causes of symptoms.
a label attached to a set of symptoms that tend to occur with one another.
the consistency of a test in measuring what it is supposed to measure.
the accuracy of a test in assessing what it is supposed to measure.
Test appears to measure what it is supposed to measure
Test assesses all important aspects of a phenomenon
Test predicts the behavior it is supposed to measure
Test yields the same results as other measures of the same behavior, thoughts, or feelings
Test measures what it is supposed to measure not something else
Test produces similar results when given at two points in time
Alternate Form Reliability
Two versions of the same test produce similar results
Different parts of the same test produce the same results
Two or more raters who administer the same test come to the same conclusion
only a few open-ended questions.
series of questions, concrete criteria
A quick assessment of a wide variety of symptoms or symptoms of a specific disorder.
AKA BDI, BAI
Quick & easy to administer
Provide normative information to aid in diagnosis.
Allow for efficient symptom monitoring that can be shared with clients.
Questionnaires that are meant to assess people's typical ways of thinking, feeling, & behaving.
AKA Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
500+ True/False questions
Assume that people presented with ambiguous information will interpret it in a way that reflects their concerns & feelings.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The Sentence Completion Test
How do projective tests relate to psychodynamic theory?
It uses the "unconscious" to determine issues. (Ex. if you see a snake in the picture you need x subconsciously)
Describe a "multiaxial system" and be able to recognize what kind of information is included on each Axis in DSM-iv-tr diagnoses.
5 axes, or dimensions on which a clinician evaluated behavior:
I and II: Diagnostic codes, associated features, culture, age, gender, family, etc
III and IV: General medical conditions, Psychosocial and environmental problems
V: GAF scores
how to apply the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score.
Consider psychological, social, & occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness. Do not include impairment in functioning due to physical limitations.
Describe/Discuss the 4 main continuing concerns about use of the DSM-IV.
1.) Cultural Issues
Describe what is meant by "the disease model" and the problem of the categorical vs. continuous nature of mental illness.
The disease model assumes you can define where normality ends & psychopathology begins.
Researchers have argued personality disorders are extreme variants of normal personality traits.