ch 16-26(?)

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The ______ Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporations when defending themselves against regulation by the state governments

Fourteenth

______ had a different party affiliation from the other Gilded Age presidents (Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford Hayes, Benjamin Harrison, Chester Arthur)

Grover Cleveland

_______ saif the following quote, "I think we must get rid of slavery or we must get rid of freedom."

Ralph Waldo Emerson

the "Billion-Dollar Congress" quickly disposed of rising government surpluses by

expanding pensions for Civil War veterans

A "bird of passage" was an immigrant who

came to America to work for a short time and then returned to Europe

"Cross of Gold Speech"

Cross of gold speech given by Bryan to advocate bimetallism. Wanted silver to be the same as a dollar. Would help reverse deflation over the last 20 years, and with silver's stock rising it would help famers in debt.

The "gospel of wealth" which associated godliness with riches

held that the wealthy should display moral responsibility for their God-given money

"Influence of Sea Power Upon History"

(1890) Alfred Thayer Mahan's book showing how in the past, nations with good navys were prosperous, etc. Went o prove his theory.

"New Immigration"

New form of immigration that made it easier for them to reap the benefits.

The "pragmatists" were a school of American philosophers who emphasized

the provisional and fallible nature of knowledge and value of ideas that solved problems

"Spoilsmen" was the label attached to those who

expected government jobs from their party's elected officeholders

"Varying Viewpoints" notes that Ulrich B. Phillips made certain claims about slavery that have been challenged in recent years. The following are his conclusions:

Slaves were racially inferior, slavery was a dying economic institution, planters treated their slaves with kindly paternalism, slaves were passive by nature and did not abhor slavery.

18th Amendment

18th: Prohibition in the United States because of that citizen's sex

19th Amendment

Women got to vote!

The 1884 election contest between James G. Blaine and Grover Cleveland was noted for

its personal attacks on the two candidates

Abraham Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated while in office, the second was

James Garfield

Admiral Dewey

admiral who suprise attacked and took over Manila Bay in the first action of the Spanish American War.

after 1830, most people in the North

were alarmed by the radicalism of abolitionists like William Lloyed Garrison

After 1830, the abolitionist movement took a new, more energetic tone, encouraged by the

success of the British abolitionists in having slavery abolished in the British West Indies

After the Civil War, the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the United States

helped build the nation into an industrial giant

Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were called

pools

Alfred Thayer Mahan

captain and author of two books, who developed the theory that with a big modern navy, the US would be good in war, prosperous out of war, and be able to annex places in the Caribbean and make them colonies.

All of the following were important factors in post-Civil War industrial expansion

a large pool of unskilled labor, an abundance of natural resources, American ingenuity and inventiveness, a political climate favoring business

All of the following were weaknesses of the slave plantation:

it relied on a one-crop economy, it repelled a large-scale European immigration, it stimulated racism among poor whites, it created an aristocratic political elite

All told, only about ____ of white southerners owned slaves or belonged to a slaveholding family

1/4

America's first billion-dollar corporation was

United States Steel

American Federation of Labor

established in 1881 by Samuel Gompers. Opposed to organizing women and unskilled laborers. They wanted higher wages, improved working conditions, 8-hour days, and use of union made products. They supported collective bargaining.

American newspapers expanded their circulation and public attention by

printing sensationalist stories of sex and scandal

American novelists' turn from romanticism and transcendentalism to rugged social realism reflected the

materialism and conflicts of the new industrial society

The American Protective Association

supported immigration restrictions

Americans offered growing support for a free public education system

because they accepted the idea that a free government cannot function without educated citizens

Andrew Carnegie

In 1875 he built the J. Edgar Thompson Steel Works after his biggest customer the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. By 1890 the Carnegie Steel Company dominated the industry. He retired rich and believed he needed to do philanthropic work. It was shameful to die rich. He built libraries, Carnegie endowment for international peace and Carnegie Hall. He wrote the Gospel of Wealth

anti-imperialists

those who opposed annexation of the Phillipines, declaring it unconstitutional to do so.

Arrange the following in chronological order: the founding of the (A) American Colonization Society, (B) American Anti-Slavery Society, (C) Liberty Party

A (1822), B (1833), C (1840)

As a leader of the African American community, Booker T. Washington

promoted black self-help but did not challenge segregation

As a result of the introduction of the cotton gin

slavery was invigorated

As a result of white southerners' brutal treatment of their slaves and their fear of potential slave rebellions, the South

developed a theory of biological racial superiority

As a solution to the panic or depression of 1873, debtors suggested

inflationary policies

As a substitute for the wage-incentive system, salveowners most often used the

whip as a motivator

As their main crop, southern subsistence farmers raised

corn

At the conclusion of the Civil War, General Ulysses S. Grant

accepted gifts of houses and money from citizens

At the end of Reconstruction, Southern whites disenfranchised African Americans with

literacy requirements, poll taxes, economic intimidation, grandfather clauses

Atlanta Compromise Speech

Atlanta Compromise was a speech given by Booker T. Washington on the topic of race relations. He addressed the inequality between commercial legality and social acceptance. Presented in front of a white crowd in Atlanta.

Band Allison Act

in 1878 under Hayes, this was established to maintain a higher price for silver & to strengthen declining farm prices and industrial wages, by increasing the volume of money in circulation.

Before the Civil War, free blacks

were disliked in the North as well as the South, were often mullato offspring of white father and black mothers, were forbidden basic civil rights

Benjamin Harrison

Elected in 1888 and between those years six states were admitted. He also was president during the Pan American Conference were they began negotiations of all trade between north and south America.

Black leader Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois

demanded complete equality for African Americans

Booker T. Washington

He was born a slave and was educated. He began working as a janitor. He founded the Tuskegee Institute for learning and researching about crops in Alabama. He was a brilliant speaker and believed every black man must pick themselves up by there own bootstrap.

Booker T. Washington believed that the key to political and civil rights for African Americans was

economic independence

Boxer Rebellion

the chinese rebellion in which the chinese nationalists drove all foreigners under seige. International rescuers had to come and save these foreigners.

Bull Moose Party

1912- Lead by Robert La Follette. It was created in the opposition towards Taft. Theodore Roosevelt was their candidate.

By 1`860, slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" located in the

Deep South states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana

By 1860, life for the slaves was most difficult in the

newer states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana

By 1900, advocates of women's suffrage

argued that the vote would enable women to extend their roles as mothers and homemakers to the public world

By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively and stroke. Nevertheless,

the cast majority of employers continued to take advantage of the situation

By 1900, American cities were becoming

segregated by race and ethnic group

By 1900, congressional legislation barred __________ from immigrating to America.

the Chinese

By 1900, organized labor in America

had begun to develop a more positive image with the public

By the mid-nineteenth century,

most slaves lived on large plantations

Charles Darwin

Came up with the theory that was the foundation for Social Darwinism. The belief that the activities of people, their business and social relationships were governed by the Darwinian principle that the "fittest" will always "survive" if allowed to exercise their capacities with our restriction.

The Chinese word "tong" means

meeting hall

Clayton Anti-trust Act

designed to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. "unfair methods of competition" expanded to include: price of discrimination, interlocking directories, purchase by one company of sock in competing corporations, contrasts limiting the right of purchasers to handle the products of competing companies.

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

(1850) treaty between US and Great Britain agreeing that neither nation would exclusively control an inter-oceanic canal. Britain violated this by hiring someone to build them a canal, and the US threatened to do things that would also violate the treaty.

The Compromise of 1877 resulted in

the withdrawal of federal troops from the South

Cotton became important to the prosperity of the North as well as the South becaue

northern merchants handled the shipping of southern cotton

Coxey's Army

It was organized by Jacob Coxey who proposed a federally sponsored public works. He marched with 500 others in congress. Congress did nothing and Coxey was convicted of "walking on the grass".

The Crédit Mobilier scandal involved

railroad construction kickbacks

Darwin's theories

theories that became applicable in the time in international relations; took on the ideas of manifest destiny

The Darwinian theory of organic evolution through natural selection affected American religion by

creating a split between religious conservatives who denied evolution and "accomodationists" who supported it

Depuy de Lome letter

letter from spanish minister de Lome to someone in Cuba, which was intercepted and published in te New York Journal. It insulted McKinley and his efforts in Cuba, leading to de Lome's hasty resignation.

Despite generally rising wages in the late nineteenth century, industrial workers were extremely vulnerable to

economic swings and depressions, employers' whims, sudden unemployment, illness and accident

Dollar diplomacy

President Taft's policy that promoted US economic penetration to underdeveloped nations, especially in Latin America. It sought to strengthen US influence without use of US troops or control.

Downes vs. Bidwell

(1901) Supreme Court case in which the Foraker tariff was challenged on the grounds that Puerto Rico was part of the US. The ruling upheld the duty.

During industrialization, Americans increasingly

shared a common and standardized popular culture

During the age of industrialization, the South

remained overwhelmingly rural and agriculture

During the Gilded Age, most of the railroad barons

built their railroads with government assistance

During the Gilded Age, the Democrats and the Republicans

had few significant economic differences

During the Gilded Age, the lifeblood of both the Democratic and the Republican parties was

political patronage

During the Industrial Revolution, life expectancy

measurably increased

The early populist campaign to create a coalition of white and black farmers ended in

a racist backlash that eliminated black voting in the South

Early railroad owners formed "pools" in order to

avoid competition by divide business in a particular area

Economic unrest and the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act led to the rise of the pro-silver leader

William Jennings Bryan

Edward Bellamy

Wrote Looking Backwards, critical of social Darwinism. It sold over a million copies in its first few years. It described a utopian society where all economic activity was carefully planned. He believed all citizens should share everything equally.

Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came in the form of action by

state legislatures

Ellis Island

The place in New York where immigrants sailed in to enter the United States.

Emilio Aguinaldo

the man who worked with Dewey to overthrow Spainish rule of the Phillipines, but who later rebelled against the US during the Phillipine Insurrection.

Emma Goldman

"Red Emma" Goldman, "typical American immigrant" because she held on to the culture of her old country, Russia, but also insisted she was an American patriot. Organized the No-Conscription League to provide aid and comfort for men who were drafted. Arrested for conspiring to persuade men to not register for the draft. Founded Mother Earth.

Eugene V. Debs

leader of the Pullman strike and president of the American Railway Union, He ignored the injunction given by Attorney General Richard Olney to stop the interference with mail and interstate commerce so he was arrested and sentenced to 6 months in prison.

Even historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism generally concede that

America has greater social mobility than Europe has

Exclusion Act

In 1882 it excluded Chinese from entering the United States for 10 years. It was repealed in 1943.

Farmers Alliance

In 1873 the Grangers founded this. Their goals promote social gatherings/education opportunities, organize against abuse, form cooperative/women played a significant role, and wanted political pressure. This later led to the founding of the populist party.

Federal Reserve Act

Glass Owen Act: creation of the federation of reserve, supported loans to private banks at an interest or "discount rat" sat by the FRS, federal reserve notes, board of seven members, later 8/ presidential appointments.

Federal Trade Commission Act

5- member board meant to investigate the operation of corporations, to require published reports, and to issue cease-and-dentist orders against corporations.

The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the

Interstate Commerce Commission

The first major product of the oil industry was

kerosene

The following are common with each other:

Nat Turner, David Walker, Denmark Vesey, Gabriel (John Quincy Adams is NOT)

The following are related to each other:

Jim Fisk, "Black Friday", Jay Gould, Wall Street gold market ("Ohio Idea" is NOT)

The following are true of the American economy under the Cotton Kingdom:

cotton accounted for half of all American exports after 1840, the South produced more than half the entires world's supply of cotton, 75% of the British supply of cotton came from the South, quick profits from the cotton drew planters to its economic enterprise.

The following internal developments in China resulted in Chinese immigration to the United States:

the disintegration of the Chinese Empire, the seizure of farmland by landlords, the intrusion of European powers, and internal political turmoil

The following relate to each other:

lockout, yellow dog contract, blacklist, company town (closed shop does NOT)

The following sports were developed in the decades following the Civil War

basketball, croquet, college football, baseball

The following were among the platform planks adopted by the Populist Party in their convention of 1892:

government ownership of the railroads, telephone, and telegraph, free and unlimited coinage of silver in the ration of 16 to 1, a one-term limit on the presidency, immigration restrictions

The following were true of slavery in the South:

slave life on the frontier was harder than that of life in the more settled areas, a distinctive African American slave culture develoepd, a typical planter had too much of his own prosperity riding on the bakcs of his slaves to beat them on a regular basis, by 1860 most slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" of the Deep South

For free blacks living in the North

discrimination was common

Foraker Act

(1900) act establishing a civil government for Puerto Rico, which was neither fully american nor fully independant. Also placed a tariff on Puerto Rican products coming into the US.

Forced seperation of spouses, parents, and children was most common

on small plantations and in the upper South

The four states completely carried by the Populists in the election of 1892 were

Kansas, Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada

Frederick Jackson Turner

Wrote the "Significance of the frontier" argued that the closing of the frontier in 1890 had ended an era in American History.

General Lewis Wallace's book "Ben Hur"

defended Christianity against Darwinism

General Valeriano Weyler

(1896) Spanish governor of Cuba who placed the rural population in reconcentration camps to deprive the rebels of recruits and thus keep himself in power.

Generally the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor

corporations

Gentleman's Agreement

(1907) agreement in which the Japanese promised not to issue passports to laborers seeking to come to the US, in return for no Japanese segregation in the US.

George Westinghouse

invented the air brake that enabled an engineer to apply the brakes to all cars simultaneously, making it possible to increase the number of trains and the speed at which they traveled safely at. To bear more weight and speed the tracks had to be switched to steel rather than iron.

German and Irish immigration to the South was discouraged by

competition with slave labor

Gospel Of Wealth

A book written by Andrew Carnegie. It said individuals have power and responsibility.

Granger Movement

1867 National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry. Founded by Oliver Kelley who worked for the US department of Agriculture. They wanted socialization, a sense of community for farmers and after 1873 the membership grew as did their political involvement. They had some issues: railroad and warehouse practices and government control of railroads. They provided cooperative stores, creameries, elevators, warehouses, insurance companies and factories.

The great increase of the slave population in the first half of the nineteenth century was largely due to

natural reproduction

The greatest political beneficiary of the backlash against President Cleveland in the Congressional elections of 1894 were

the Republicans

The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was

the railroad network

The group most affected by the new industrial age was

women

Grover Cleveland

Elected in 1884-1892. He was a New York governor. He was pro civil service reform and lower tariff. He favored limited role of Federal Government. He cared more for principal. Fathered an illegitimate child. He won against Blaine.

The growing prohibition movement especially reflected the concerns of

middle class women

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

(1903) treaty that granted the US land to build the Panama canal in exchange for $10 million and annual payments to Panama. Occured shortly after Panama's independance.

Hay-Herran Treaty

(1903) treaty that, had it been ratified, would have provided the US with a lease on a strip of land in Panama for $10 million and additional annual payments to Columbia.

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty

(1901) treaty getting rid of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty; allowed the US to build a waterway as long as all other nations could use it.

Haymarket Riot

May 4, 1886 in Chicago following a nationwide strike by AFL and Knights of Labor. Bomb exploded during a protest meeting and 7 people died. 8 anarchists convicted of murder.

Henry Cabot Lodge

Massachusetts congressman and member of the Naval Affairs Commitee who pushed a warship-making act, pressed for expansionist policies based on Mahan, and advocated to expand and modernize the US naval fleet.

Henry Demarest Lloyd

A Muckraker and a progressive. He worked for the Chicago Tribune. He has been called "the father of investigative journalism" for his groundbreaking work. Wrote Wealth Against Commonwealth.

Henry George

Californian journalist who published Progress and Poverty a forthright attack on the uneven distribution of wealth in the U.S. He said labor was the only true source of capitol. He proposed the "single tax" which was a tax that would bring in so much money that no other taxes would be necessary and the government would have plenty of funds to establish new schools... it was never adopted. He ran for mayor against Abram S. Hewitt and lost.

Henry George argued that the windfall real estate profits caused by rising land prices should be

taxed at a 100 percent rate by the government

Henry George believed that the root of social inequality and social injustice lay in

landowners who gained unearned wealth from rising land values

Hepburn Act

in 1906 it was emplaced. It enlarged the ICC to seven members. Authority to determine railroad rates and prescribe bookkeeping methods. It also prohibited free passes.

Homestead Steel Strike

In 1892- one of the most violent strikes in America at the Carnegie Steel Company. 7 people died. 300 Pinkerton detectives were hired and there was a battle where they ultimately surrendered.

Ida Tarbell

a muckraker who exposed corruption in Standard Oil Company.

The idea of recolonizing blacks to Africa was

supported by the black leader Martin Delaney

The image of the "Gibson Girl" represented

a romantic ideal of the independent and athletic "new woman"

imperialism without colonies

Americas shortlived imperialistic time in which the US pursued a course that promoted economic penetration of underdeveloped areas without the trouble of owning and controlling them.

In arguing the continuation of slavery after 1830, southerners

placed themselves in opposition to much of the rest of the western world

In its efforts on behalf of workers, the National labor Union won

an eight-hour day for government workers

In the 1890s, positions for women as secretaries, department store clerks, and telephone operators were largely reserved for

the native born

In the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled that

"separate but equal" facilities were constitutional

In the attempt to avoid prosecution for their corrupt dealings, the owners of Credit Mobilizer

distributed shares of the company's valuable stock to key congressmen

In the course of the late nineteenth century

family size gradually declined

In the decades after the Civil War, changes in sexual attitudes and practices were reflected in all of the following

soaring divorce rates, the spreading practice of birth control, increasingly frank discussion of sexual topics, more women working outside the home

In the decades after the Civil War, college education for women

became much more common

In the late nineteenth century, tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor especially attracted _______ manufacturing to the "new South"

textile

In the late nineteenth century, those political candidates who campaigned by "waving the bloody shirt" were reminding voters

of the "treason" of the Confederate Democrats during the Civil War

In the latter decades of the nineteenth century, it was generally true that the locus of political power was

Congress

In the new urban environment, most liberal Protestants

rejected biblical literalism and adapted religious ideas to modern culture

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