The ______ Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporations when defending themselves against regulation by the state governments
______ had a different party affiliation from the other Gilded Age presidents (Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford Hayes, Benjamin Harrison, Chester Arthur)
_______ saif the following quote, "I think we must get rid of slavery or we must get rid of freedom."
Ralph Waldo Emerson
the "Billion-Dollar Congress" quickly disposed of rising government surpluses by
expanding pensions for Civil War veterans
A "bird of passage" was an immigrant who
came to America to work for a short time and then returned to Europe
"Cross of Gold Speech"
Cross of gold speech given by Bryan to advocate bimetallism. Wanted silver to be the same as a dollar. Would help reverse deflation over the last 20 years, and with silver's stock rising it would help famers in debt.
The "gospel of wealth" which associated godliness with riches
held that the wealthy should display moral responsibility for their God-given money
"Influence of Sea Power Upon History"
(1890) Alfred Thayer Mahan's book showing how in the past, nations with good navys were prosperous, etc. Went o prove his theory.
The "pragmatists" were a school of American philosophers who emphasized
the provisional and fallible nature of knowledge and value of ideas that solved problems
"Spoilsmen" was the label attached to those who
expected government jobs from their party's elected officeholders
"Varying Viewpoints" notes that Ulrich B. Phillips made certain claims about slavery that have been challenged in recent years. The following are his conclusions:
Slaves were racially inferior, slavery was a dying economic institution, planters treated their slaves with kindly paternalism, slaves were passive by nature and did not abhor slavery.
The 1884 election contest between James G. Blaine and Grover Cleveland was noted for
its personal attacks on the two candidates
Abraham Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated while in office, the second was
admiral who suprise attacked and took over Manila Bay in the first action of the Spanish American War.
after 1830, most people in the North
were alarmed by the radicalism of abolitionists like William Lloyed Garrison
After 1830, the abolitionist movement took a new, more energetic tone, encouraged by the
success of the British abolitionists in having slavery abolished in the British West Indies
After the Civil War, the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the United States
helped build the nation into an industrial giant
Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were called
Alfred Thayer Mahan
captain and author of two books, who developed the theory that with a big modern navy, the US would be good in war, prosperous out of war, and be able to annex places in the Caribbean and make them colonies.
All of the following were important factors in post-Civil War industrial expansion
a large pool of unskilled labor, an abundance of natural resources, American ingenuity and inventiveness, a political climate favoring business
All of the following were weaknesses of the slave plantation:
it relied on a one-crop economy, it repelled a large-scale European immigration, it stimulated racism among poor whites, it created an aristocratic political elite
All told, only about ____ of white southerners owned slaves or belonged to a slaveholding family
American Federation of Labor
established in 1881 by Samuel Gompers. Opposed to organizing women and unskilled laborers. They wanted higher wages, improved working conditions, 8-hour days, and use of union made products. They supported collective bargaining.
American newspapers expanded their circulation and public attention by
printing sensationalist stories of sex and scandal
American novelists' turn from romanticism and transcendentalism to rugged social realism reflected the
materialism and conflicts of the new industrial society
Americans offered growing support for a free public education system
because they accepted the idea that a free government cannot function without educated citizens
In 1875 he built the J. Edgar Thompson Steel Works after his biggest customer the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. By 1890 the Carnegie Steel Company dominated the industry. He retired rich and believed he needed to do philanthropic work. It was shameful to die rich. He built libraries, Carnegie endowment for international peace and Carnegie Hall. He wrote the Gospel of Wealth
those who opposed annexation of the Phillipines, declaring it unconstitutional to do so.
Arrange the following in chronological order: the founding of the (A) American Colonization Society, (B) American Anti-Slavery Society, (C) Liberty Party
A (1822), B (1833), C (1840)
As a leader of the African American community, Booker T. Washington
promoted black self-help but did not challenge segregation
As a result of white southerners' brutal treatment of their slaves and their fear of potential slave rebellions, the South
developed a theory of biological racial superiority
At the conclusion of the Civil War, General Ulysses S. Grant
accepted gifts of houses and money from citizens
At the end of Reconstruction, Southern whites disenfranchised African Americans with
literacy requirements, poll taxes, economic intimidation, grandfather clauses
Atlanta Compromise Speech
Atlanta Compromise was a speech given by Booker T. Washington on the topic of race relations. He addressed the inequality between commercial legality and social acceptance. Presented in front of a white crowd in Atlanta.
Band Allison Act
in 1878 under Hayes, this was established to maintain a higher price for silver & to strengthen declining farm prices and industrial wages, by increasing the volume of money in circulation.
Before the Civil War, free blacks
were disliked in the North as well as the South, were often mullato offspring of white father and black mothers, were forbidden basic civil rights
Elected in 1888 and between those years six states were admitted. He also was president during the Pan American Conference were they began negotiations of all trade between north and south America.
Booker T. Washington
He was born a slave and was educated. He began working as a janitor. He founded the Tuskegee Institute for learning and researching about crops in Alabama. He was a brilliant speaker and believed every black man must pick themselves up by there own bootstrap.
Booker T. Washington believed that the key to political and civil rights for African Americans was
the chinese rebellion in which the chinese nationalists drove all foreigners under seige. International rescuers had to come and save these foreigners.
Bull Moose Party
1912- Lead by Robert La Follette. It was created in the opposition towards Taft. Theodore Roosevelt was their candidate.
By 1`860, slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" located in the
Deep South states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana
By 1860, life for the slaves was most difficult in the
newer states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana
By 1900, advocates of women's suffrage
argued that the vote would enable women to extend their roles as mothers and homemakers to the public world
By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively and stroke. Nevertheless,
the cast majority of employers continued to take advantage of the situation
Came up with the theory that was the foundation for Social Darwinism. The belief that the activities of people, their business and social relationships were governed by the Darwinian principle that the "fittest" will always "survive" if allowed to exercise their capacities with our restriction.
Clayton Anti-trust Act
designed to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. "unfair methods of competition" expanded to include: price of discrimination, interlocking directories, purchase by one company of sock in competing corporations, contrasts limiting the right of purchasers to handle the products of competing companies.
(1850) treaty between US and Great Britain agreeing that neither nation would exclusively control an inter-oceanic canal. Britain violated this by hiring someone to build them a canal, and the US threatened to do things that would also violate the treaty.
Cotton became important to the prosperity of the North as well as the South becaue
northern merchants handled the shipping of southern cotton
It was organized by Jacob Coxey who proposed a federally sponsored public works. He marched with 500 others in congress. Congress did nothing and Coxey was convicted of "walking on the grass".
theories that became applicable in the time in international relations; took on the ideas of manifest destiny
The Darwinian theory of organic evolution through natural selection affected American religion by
creating a split between religious conservatives who denied evolution and "accomodationists" who supported it
Depuy de Lome letter
letter from spanish minister de Lome to someone in Cuba, which was intercepted and published in te New York Journal. It insulted McKinley and his efforts in Cuba, leading to de Lome's hasty resignation.
Despite generally rising wages in the late nineteenth century, industrial workers were extremely vulnerable to
economic swings and depressions, employers' whims, sudden unemployment, illness and accident
President Taft's policy that promoted US economic penetration to underdeveloped nations, especially in Latin America. It sought to strengthen US influence without use of US troops or control.
Downes vs. Bidwell
(1901) Supreme Court case in which the Foraker tariff was challenged on the grounds that Puerto Rico was part of the US. The ruling upheld the duty.
During the Gilded Age, the lifeblood of both the Democratic and the Republican parties was
The early populist campaign to create a coalition of white and black farmers ended in
a racist backlash that eliminated black voting in the South
Early railroad owners formed "pools" in order to
avoid competition by divide business in a particular area
Economic unrest and the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act led to the rise of the pro-silver leader
William Jennings Bryan
Wrote Looking Backwards, critical of social Darwinism. It sold over a million copies in its first few years. It described a utopian society where all economic activity was carefully planned. He believed all citizens should share everything equally.
Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came in the form of action by
the man who worked with Dewey to overthrow Spainish rule of the Phillipines, but who later rebelled against the US during the Phillipine Insurrection.
"Red Emma" Goldman, "typical American immigrant" because she held on to the culture of her old country, Russia, but also insisted she was an American patriot. Organized the No-Conscription League to provide aid and comfort for men who were drafted. Arrested for conspiring to persuade men to not register for the draft. Founded Mother Earth.
Eugene V. Debs
leader of the Pullman strike and president of the American Railway Union, He ignored the injunction given by Attorney General Richard Olney to stop the interference with mail and interstate commerce so he was arrested and sentenced to 6 months in prison.
Even historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism generally concede that
America has greater social mobility than Europe has
In 1882 it excluded Chinese from entering the United States for 10 years. It was repealed in 1943.
In 1873 the Grangers founded this. Their goals promote social gatherings/education opportunities, organize against abuse, form cooperative/women played a significant role, and wanted political pressure. This later led to the founding of the populist party.
Federal Reserve Act
Glass Owen Act: creation of the federation of reserve, supported loans to private banks at an interest or "discount rat" sat by the FRS, federal reserve notes, board of seven members, later 8/ presidential appointments.
Federal Trade Commission Act
5- member board meant to investigate the operation of corporations, to require published reports, and to issue cease-and-dentist orders against corporations.
The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the
Interstate Commerce Commission
The following are common with each other:
Nat Turner, David Walker, Denmark Vesey, Gabriel (John Quincy Adams is NOT)
The following are related to each other:
Jim Fisk, "Black Friday", Jay Gould, Wall Street gold market ("Ohio Idea" is NOT)
The following are true of the American economy under the Cotton Kingdom:
cotton accounted for half of all American exports after 1840, the South produced more than half the entires world's supply of cotton, 75% of the British supply of cotton came from the South, quick profits from the cotton drew planters to its economic enterprise.
The following internal developments in China resulted in Chinese immigration to the United States:
the disintegration of the Chinese Empire, the seizure of farmland by landlords, the intrusion of European powers, and internal political turmoil
The following relate to each other:
lockout, yellow dog contract, blacklist, company town (closed shop does NOT)
The following sports were developed in the decades following the Civil War
basketball, croquet, college football, baseball
The following were among the platform planks adopted by the Populist Party in their convention of 1892:
government ownership of the railroads, telephone, and telegraph, free and unlimited coinage of silver in the ration of 16 to 1, a one-term limit on the presidency, immigration restrictions
The following were true of slavery in the South:
slave life on the frontier was harder than that of life in the more settled areas, a distinctive African American slave culture develoepd, a typical planter had too much of his own prosperity riding on the bakcs of his slaves to beat them on a regular basis, by 1860 most slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" of the Deep South
(1900) act establishing a civil government for Puerto Rico, which was neither fully american nor fully independant. Also placed a tariff on Puerto Rican products coming into the US.
Forced seperation of spouses, parents, and children was most common
on small plantations and in the upper South
The four states completely carried by the Populists in the election of 1892 were
Kansas, Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada
Frederick Jackson Turner
Wrote the "Significance of the frontier" argued that the closing of the frontier in 1890 had ended an era in American History.
General Valeriano Weyler
(1896) Spanish governor of Cuba who placed the rural population in reconcentration camps to deprive the rebels of recruits and thus keep himself in power.
Generally the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor
(1907) agreement in which the Japanese promised not to issue passports to laborers seeking to come to the US, in return for no Japanese segregation in the US.
invented the air brake that enabled an engineer to apply the brakes to all cars simultaneously, making it possible to increase the number of trains and the speed at which they traveled safely at. To bear more weight and speed the tracks had to be switched to steel rather than iron.
Gospel Of Wealth
A book written by Andrew Carnegie. It said individuals have power and responsibility.
1867 National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry. Founded by Oliver Kelley who worked for the US department of Agriculture. They wanted socialization, a sense of community for farmers and after 1873 the membership grew as did their political involvement. They had some issues: railroad and warehouse practices and government control of railroads. They provided cooperative stores, creameries, elevators, warehouses, insurance companies and factories.
The great increase of the slave population in the first half of the nineteenth century was largely due to
The greatest political beneficiary of the backlash against President Cleveland in the Congressional elections of 1894 were
The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was
the railroad network
Elected in 1884-1892. He was a New York governor. He was pro civil service reform and lower tariff. He favored limited role of Federal Government. He cared more for principal. Fathered an illegitimate child. He won against Blaine.
(1903) treaty that granted the US land to build the Panama canal in exchange for $10 million and annual payments to Panama. Occured shortly after Panama's independance.
(1903) treaty that, had it been ratified, would have provided the US with a lease on a strip of land in Panama for $10 million and additional annual payments to Columbia.
(1901) treaty getting rid of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty; allowed the US to build a waterway as long as all other nations could use it.
May 4, 1886 in Chicago following a nationwide strike by AFL and Knights of Labor. Bomb exploded during a protest meeting and 7 people died. 8 anarchists convicted of murder.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Massachusetts congressman and member of the Naval Affairs Commitee who pushed a warship-making act, pressed for expansionist policies based on Mahan, and advocated to expand and modernize the US naval fleet.
Henry Demarest Lloyd
A Muckraker and a progressive. He worked for the Chicago Tribune. He has been called "the father of investigative journalism" for his groundbreaking work. Wrote Wealth Against Commonwealth.
Californian journalist who published Progress and Poverty a forthright attack on the uneven distribution of wealth in the U.S. He said labor was the only true source of capitol. He proposed the "single tax" which was a tax that would bring in so much money that no other taxes would be necessary and the government would have plenty of funds to establish new schools... it was never adopted. He ran for mayor against Abram S. Hewitt and lost.
Henry George argued that the windfall real estate profits caused by rising land prices should be
taxed at a 100 percent rate by the government
Henry George believed that the root of social inequality and social injustice lay in
landowners who gained unearned wealth from rising land values
in 1906 it was emplaced. It enlarged the ICC to seven members. Authority to determine railroad rates and prescribe bookkeeping methods. It also prohibited free passes.
Homestead Steel Strike
In 1892- one of the most violent strikes in America at the Carnegie Steel Company. 7 people died. 300 Pinkerton detectives were hired and there was a battle where they ultimately surrendered.
The image of the "Gibson Girl" represented
a romantic ideal of the independent and athletic "new woman"
imperialism without colonies
Americas shortlived imperialistic time in which the US pursued a course that promoted economic penetration of underdeveloped areas without the trouble of owning and controlling them.
In arguing the continuation of slavery after 1830, southerners
placed themselves in opposition to much of the rest of the western world
In its efforts on behalf of workers, the National labor Union won
an eight-hour day for government workers
In the 1890s, positions for women as secretaries, department store clerks, and telephone operators were largely reserved for
the native born
In the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled that
"separate but equal" facilities were constitutional
In the attempt to avoid prosecution for their corrupt dealings, the owners of Credit Mobilizer
distributed shares of the company's valuable stock to key congressmen
In the decades after the Civil War, changes in sexual attitudes and practices were reflected in all of the following
soaring divorce rates, the spreading practice of birth control, increasingly frank discussion of sexual topics, more women working outside the home
In the late nineteenth century, tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor especially attracted _______ manufacturing to the "new South"
In the late nineteenth century, those political candidates who campaigned by "waving the bloody shirt" were reminding voters
of the "treason" of the Confederate Democrats during the Civil War
In the latter decades of the nineteenth century, it was generally true that the locus of political power was
In the new urban environment, most liberal Protestants
rejected biblical literalism and adapted religious ideas to modern culture
Those in the North who opposed the abolionists believed that tehse opponents of slavery
were creating disorder in America
IN the pre-Civil War South, the most uncommon and least successful form of slave resistance was
In the presidential election of 1868, Ulysses S. Grant
owed his victory to the votes of former slaves
In the wake of anti-Chinese violence in California, the United States Congress
passed a law prohibiting the immigration of Chinese laborers to America
voters propose laws either by a proposition for the voters or for action by a state legislature.
Interstate Commerce Act
It was to OUTLAW competition. Railroads must post reasonable and just rates publicly. Pooling and rebates illegal. Ineffective because they law was weakened by the courts. It established an Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) a five person agency. It was the first federal regulatory board to supervise the affairs of railroads, investigate complaints, and issue cease and desist orders when the roads acted illegally. It was contradictory and less powerful. It challenged the philosophy of laissez-faire.
Interstate Commerce Act
1887- a 5-person agency. Railroads must post reasonable and just rates publicly. Pooling and rebates were illegal. This was ineffective because the courts weakened law.
International Workers of the World: Wobblies: in 1905 it was founded b "Big Bill" Haywood. It supported militant agitation, will full obstruction of industry, and damage to businesses in case of disputes. It declined because people didn't like its militant objectives.
J. P. Morgan
Banking- Bought U.S. Steel Company. He put together the United States Steel, which was the world first billion-dollar corporation. This included all Carnegie's properties, the Federal Steel Company, and important fabricators of finished products as the American Steel and Wire Company, the American Tin Plate Company, and the National tube company.
J.P. Morgan undermined competition by placing officers of his bank on the boards of supposedly independent companies that he wanted to control. The method was known as an
was a Danish American social reformer, muckraking journalist and photographer. He wrote How the Other Half Lives in 1890 about tenement life.
James A. Garfield
cut down by an assassination bullet four months after presidency. Fought at Shiloh and became lieutenant colonel major general. He won a seat in congress. He was then shot by Charles J. Guiteau. HE was a Dark Horse from Ohio. HE split the Republican party over competition for office. They became the Stalawarts (favored Grant) and Half-Breeds (a section of the Republican Party who supported civil service reform and opposed corruption.
John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve his domination of the oil industry
employing spies, extorting rebates from railroads, pursuing a policy of rule or ruin, using high-pressure sales methods
Dewey was a functionalist psychologist who had many publications in literature. he was for school and civil society
darwinist historian who argued that the US democratic system was clearly the "fittest," and it would eventually spread worldwide.
owner of the New York World, who published about the atrocities in Cuba to keep resentment alive and increase his newspaper circulation in the midst of competition.
(1885) author of Our Country; found racist and religious justifications for expansion, based on the theory of evolution.
Knights of Labor
founded in 1869 by Uriah S. Stephens. It was the first national labor organization. It was unsuccessful because it was at first a secret organization. Wanted the 8-hour day, equal pay or equal wok, better wages, abolition of child labor, safety and health laws, abolition of foreign contrast labor, graduated income tax, and government ownership of railroads and public utilities.
The Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital an labor would disappear when
labor would own and operate business and industries
The Knights of Labor believed that republican traditions and institutions could be preserved from corrupt monopolies
by strengthening the economic and political independence of the workers
Labor unions favored immigration restriction because most immigrants were all of the following
used as strikebreakers, willing to work for lower wages, difficult to unionize, non-English speaking
Argument by the labor unions saying if workers got more free time they would work harder.
Lochner v. New York
Saying a New York law limiting the working hours was unconstitutional. Limited working hours.
The major factor in drawing country people off the farms and into the big cities was
the availability of industrial jobs
The major problem in the 1876 presidential election centered on
the two sets of election returns submitted by Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana
Many abolitionists turned to political action in 1840 when they backed the presidential candidate of the
Many native-born Americans tended to blame New Immigrants for all of the following
the corruption of city government, low industrial wages, the degradation of life in American cities, importing alien social and economic doctrines
Match each abolitionist with his publication:
William Loyed Garrison: The Liberator,
Theodore Dwight Weld: American Slavery as It Is,
Frederick Douglass: Narration of the Life of ...
David Walker: Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World
Match each abolitionist with his role in the movement:
Wendell Phillips: abolitionist golden trumpet,
Frederick Douglass: black abolitionist
Elijah P. Lovejoy: abolitionist martyr
William Lloyed Garrison: abolitionist newspaper publisher
Match each entrepreneur with the field of enterprise with which he is historically identified:
Andrew Carnegie: vertical integration
John D. Rockefeller: trust
J. Pierpont Morgan: interlocking directorate
Match each entrepreneur with the field of enterprise with which he is historically identified:
Andrew Carnegie: steel
John D. Rockefeller: oil
J. Pierpont Morgan: banking
James Duke: tobacco
Match each labor organization with the correct description:
National Labor Union: a social-reform union killed by the depression of the 1870s
Knights of Labor: the "one big union" that championed producer cooperatives and industrial arbitration
American Federation of Labor: an association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter working hours, and better working conditions
Match each of these late-nineteenth-centry writers with the theme of his work
Lewis Wallace: anti-Darwinism support for the Holy Scriptures
Horatio Alger: success and honor as the products of honesty and hard work
Henry James: psychological realism and the dilemmas of sophisticated women
William Dean Howells: contemporary social problems like divorce, labor strikes, and socialism
Match each politician with the Republican political faction with which he was associated:
Roscoe Conkling: Stalwarts
James Blaine: "Half-Breeds"
Horace Greeley: Liberal Republicans
Ulysses Grant: Regular Republicans
Match the railroad company below with the correct entrepreneur:
James J. Hill: Great Northern
Cornelius Vanderbilt: New York Central
Leland Stanford: Central Pacific
McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
act discontinuing the duty on raw sugar which hurt Hawaiians because it destroyed the advantage they gained through the reciprocity treaty.
The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period was the
American Federation of Labor
Most Italian immigrants to the United States between 1880 and 1920 came to escape
the poverty and backwardness of southern Italy
exposed graft, corruption and dishonesty in business. The word was coined by Teddy Roosevelt. They attacked the social ills of the time (slums, prostitution, and delinquency).
Muller v. Oregon
The decision made in Lochner v. New York was modified in 1908 when S.C. upheld an Oregon statute that limited the length of the workday for women to 10 hours.
Munn vs. Illinois
a grain elevator whose owner had refused to comply either a state warehouse act, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of this kind of act. Legislatures might fix maximum charges; if the charges seemed unreasonable to the parties concerned, they should direct their complaints to the legislature or to the voters, not the courts. Allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. It was founded in 1909, promoted the rights of African Americans and initially fought against lynching, but under Roy Wilkins. Their main goal was to get rid of segregation.
National Conservation Conference
1908- attended by congressman, Teddy's cabinet, Supreme Court and 34 governors. Emphasis and publicity on issues of conservation. Recommended for conservation.
The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction in the late nineteenth century by providing railroad corporations with
Naval base in Cuba
a stipulation of the Platt amendment that gave the US ownership of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
National American Woman Suffrage Association: American Women of Suffrage Association: focused on women voting and nothing else combined with the National Women Suffrage Association: focused on all women's suffrage, headed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in 1890. They argued society would improve if the electorate consisted of women because it would be less corrupt. Another great leader was Carrie Chapman Catt, who was organized, politically skillful, and had a huge commitment to social reform. The NAWSA's main objective was to get women the right to vote. They focused on a state-to-state approach. After the Congressional Union (Alice Paul and Alva Belmont) focused on amending the constitution to give women the right to vote the NAWSA began focusing on constitutional amendments. By 1919 ¾ of the states agreed and the nineteenth amendment was in affect.
The New Immigrants who came to the United States after 1880
were culturally different from previous immigrants
Teddy Roosevelt's support for a federal tariff reform and women's suffrage. Also wanted regulation of labor relations, a minimum wage for women, initiative, referendum, recall, direct elections of senators, direct primaries and antitrust legislations.
The new, research-oriented modern American university tended to
de-emphasize religious and moral instruction in favor of practical subjects and professional specialization
1905 was founded. It was followed by a meeting in opposition to Washington's advocacy of black accommodation to white prejudice. It ended up in the foundation of the NAACP.
Northern attitudes towards free blacks can best be described as
disliking individuals but liking the race
Northern Securities Case
Teddy ordered the Justice Department to use the Sherman Antitrust Act against this railroad monopoly in the NW. By 1904 the Supreme Court ruled that the Northern Security Company he "dissolved. It got Teddy's nickname the "trust buster" for him.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
1905 Supreme Court, Lochner v. New York, rules that New York law limiting working hours was unconstitutional (violated the 14th amendment). Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
One cause of the panic that broke in 1872 was
the construction of more factories than existing markets would bear
One of the early symbols of the dawning era of consumerism in urban America was
the rise of large department stores
One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was
the need for them to adjust their lives to the time clock
One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was
elimination of as much competition as possible
One of the most important factors leading to an increased divorce rate in the late nineteenth century was the
stresses of urban life
ONe of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it
represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business
One reason for the extremely high voter turnouts and partisan fervor of the Gilded Age was
sharp ethnic and cultural differences in the membership of the two parties
One weapon that was used to put Boss Tweed, leader of New York City's infamous Tweed Ring, in jail was
the cartoons of the political satirist Thomas Nast
Open Door Policy
(1899) a policy propounded by Secretary of State John Hay affirming the territorial integrity of China and a policy of free trade.
a contractor who supplied gangs of unskilled workers to companies for a lump sum usually signed on immigrants who didn't know American wage levels at rates that insured said Padrone a healthy profit.
Panic of 1893
Depression! It was caused by agricultural depression, decline in the U.S. Gold reserve, unsound railroad financing, and bankruptcy of Philadelphia and Reading Railroad. The effects were that banks failed, several railroads went into receivership, strikes, unemployment and violence.
In 1883 it created a Civil Service Commission of 3 members appointed by the president. It tried to establish and administer competitive exams to determine the fitness of civil service employees. It created a list of merit offices/appointments.
The people who found fault with the "captains of industry" mostly argued that these men
built their corporate wealth and power by exploiting workers
Perhaps the greatest psychological horror, and the theme of Harriet beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin was
the enforced seperation of slave families
A person who seeks to promote the welfare of others. Andrew Carnegie became one when he became rich.
(1899) a reblling of the Phillipines, which US soldiers responded to by sneak attacking, torturing, etc. the Phillipine people.
A Power struggle between Gifford Pinchot and Richard Ballinger, SSecretary of the Interior. Ballinger had removed 1 million acres of forest and mineral land from the reserved list, which betrayed conservation policy. Taft supported Ballinger and dismissed Pinchot when he asked Congress to investigate the matter. The congressional committee also pardoned Ballinger. This contributed to the split of the republican party.
The place that offered the greatest opportunities for American women in the period 1865-1900 was
the big city
Plantation agriculture was wasteful largely because
its excessive cultivation of cotton despoiled good land
(1901) a law which stipulatd the conditions for the withdrawal of US forces from Cuba; it also transferred the ownership of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay to the US.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896- the court decided that separate but equal accommodation did not deprive blacks of equal rights. It was on the books till 1954.
The political developments of the 1890s were largely shaped by
the most severe and extended economic depression up to that time
The 1880's led to the foundation of this. It was formed in 1891 and gt involved in the presidential elections of 92, 96, 1900, 04, and 08. They favored pro silver, government ownership of railroad, graduated income tax, direct election of senators, recall (voters can remove a public official from office), initiative (voters propose laws either by a proposition for the voters or for action by a state legislature), and referendum (citizens can circulate a petition through which voters can then vote a law).
The pre-Civil War South was characterized by
a well-developed martial spirit, that lack of free, tax-supported public education, a widening gap between rich and poor, a ruling planter aristocracy
President Grover Cleveland aroused widespread public anger by his action of
borrowing $65 million in gold from J.P. Morgan's banking syndicate
President Ulysses S. Grant was reelected in 1872 because
his opponents chose a poor candidate for the presidency
The public library movement across America was greatly aided by the generous financial support from
In 1894 at the Pullman Palace Car Company, near Chicago this protest occurred over 25% reduction in wages. Eugene Debs lead this. It went throughout 27 states. President Cleveland sent 2000 troops to restore order and protect the U.S. Mail. There was an injunction given and it became a powerful took for employees to use against strikers.
Purchase of Alaska
(1867) purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million, instigated by William Steward. Was significant because it ridded the continent of another foreign power.
a nationalist queen who attempted to rule Hawaii as an absolute monarch. This caused the americans to stage a coup, deposing the queen and setting up a provisional government.
the spanish refugee camps into which cuban farmers were herded to prevent them from providing assistance to rebels fighting for Cuban independance from Spain.
Robert La Follette
"Mr. Progressive" Congressman and Senator of Wisconsin. He modeled state progressive reform. E was effective in publicizing progressivism nationwide. In 1911 he organized the National Progressive Republican League in an effort to liberalize the Republican Party. This league effectively split the Republican Party and resulted in the creation of the Progressive Party.
(1904) an addition to the Monroe Doctrine, propounded by President Roosevelt, asserting that the US had a right to intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American nations that had become unstable. Made US the "hemisphere policeman."
name of the army regiments made up of volunteers, who scrambled for supplies, shoving aside other regiments if need be. Teddy Roosevelt led one.
Rutherford B Hayes
"His Fraudulency". President as a result of the Compromise of 1877, he resumed gold payments, refused to expand currency, and didn't overhaul civil service as promised. Elected because of his reputation for honesty and moderation. Complained about treatment of blacks but did nothing to prevent it. He started an era of honesty. He played down the tariff issue. He resumed assumption of hold payments and vetoed bills to expand the currency. He was involved in the Customs House Dispute, where he dismissed Chester Arthur and Alonzo Cornell from their positions as officials of the Customs House when they refused to carry out civil service reform measures. He also passed the Band Allison Act.
An editor who attacked labor gangsterism in the coalfields and installments for the Tarbell and Stefens series. He showed the immorality of many people in America. He said, "We all have to pay in the end".
Salves fought the system of slavery in all of the following ways:
slowing down the work pace, sabotaging expensive equipment, pilfering goods that their labor had produced, running away when possible
The sequence of presidential terms of the "forgettable presidents: of the Gilded Age (including Cleveland's two nonconsecutive terms) was
Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison, Cleveland
Jane Adams: She organized the most successful Hull House in Chicago in 1899. It became the model for more than 400 settlement houses in the US. It was run by educated middle class women's.
Settlement houses such as Hull House engaged in all of the following activities
child care, instruction in English, cultural activities, social reform lobbying
Sherman Antitrust Act
An act saying any combination "in the form of trust or otherwise" that was "in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states, or with foreign nations" was declared illegal. Persons forming such combinations were subject to fines of $5,000 a year in jail. Individuals and businesses suffering losses because of actions that violated the law were authorized to sue in federal courts for triple damages. It was to RESTORE competition. It was loosely worded.
The slave culture was characterized by
subtle forms of resistance to slavery, tight family bonds despite the illegitimacy of slave marriages, a hybrid religion of Christian andAfrican elements, widespread illiteracy among slaves
A religious cusade emphasizing social responsibility as a means to salvation. E.G. The Slavation Army, offered materials and spiritual services to the urban poor.
leutenant colonel of a group of Rough Riders, who fought in the Spanish Amerian war.
Vice President of McKinley and when he was assassinated took over as president. He demonstrated legislative leadership in advocating Progressive reforms and inaugurated federal regulation of economic affairs. Called a "trust buster". Won for president in 1904. He promised a "Square Deal".
(1898) a rider to the war resolution with Spain whereby Congress pledged that it did not intend to annex Cuba, and that it would recognize Cuba's independance from Spain.
4 to 6 story residential apartment houses built on a tiny lot with little regard for adequate ventilation or light.
That a "talented tenth" of American blacks should lead the race to full social and political equality with whites was the view of
W. E. B. Du Bois
invented the electric light bulb. He had over 1000 patents in his lifetime dealing with motion picture projector, the storage battery, and the mimeograph (machine that produces copies from a stencil). He also invented the incandescent lamp. He was called the "Wizard of Menlo Park" because he decorated his laboratory with a certain light. The Edison Illuminating Company opened a power station in NYC and began to supply current for lighting to 85 consumers (NY times and the banking house). Soon there were 3,000 of these stations around the country. The electricity helped factories and made them safer.
To help corporations, the courts ingeniously interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment, which was designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves, so as to
avoid corporate regulation by the states
Treaty of Paris
(1898) treaty that ended the Spanish American war. Provided that Cuba be free from Spain.
Treaty of Portsmouth
(1905) treaty that ended the Russian Japanese War. Russia and Japan had to give up Manchuria, and each got back and lost some land, etc.
The tremendously rapid growth of American cities in the post-Civil War decades was
a trend that affected Europe as well
The United States changed the standard time zones when
the major rail lines decreed common fixed times so that they could keep schedules and avoid wrecks
Upton Sinclair- The Jungle
from this it helped the meat inspection Act of 1906 get passed. He described the unsafe and unsanitary conditions in the meat packing industry.
(1898) boat that exploded and sand in Cuba, killing many americans. Americans believed it was the Spainards doing, and pressed for war, revelaing US anti-spanish feelings.
W.E.B. Du Bois
A man against Washington, who favored "talented tenth" of blacks to attend college and become professionals. From his philosophy the Niagara Movement: 1905 was founded. It was followed by a meeting in opposition to Washington's advocacy of black accommodation to white prejudice. It ended up in the foundation of the NAACP.
When he was president, Grover Cleveland's hands-off approach to government gained the support of
When private railroad promoters asked the United States government for subsidies to build their railroads, they gave all of the following for their request
too risky without government help, too costly without government help, private investors would not accept initial financial losses, impossible to serve military and postal needs without government help
Which of the following prominent post-Civil War writers did not reflect the increased attention to social problems by those from less affluent backgrounds?
Which one of the following has least in common with the other four: slums, dumbbell tenements, bedroom communities, flophouses, the "Lung Block".
Which university was not among the major new research universities founded in the post-Civil War era
Those who enjoyed a successful political career in the post-Civil War decades were usually
William Howard Taft
Election of 1908 he won. Prosecuted more trusts than Roosevelt. Supported income tax and direct election of senators. He split the Republican Party in half.
William Jenings Bryan
Election in 1896, he lost to McKinley. Jennings Bryan was nominee for democrats in 1896, 1900 and 1908. Sec of State under Wilson. Prominent leader of populism, popular democracy and against Darwinism. against free silver, trust busting and anti imperialism.
William Jennings Bryan
leader of the Democrats, who opposed and could have convinced others to oppose, the ratification of annexing the Phillipines. However, he said yes so there would be no further war with Spain.
He had a "front porch" campaign. He wanted tariff increases, the gold standard, prosperity, and overseas imperialism. Leon Czolgosz at the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo New York assassinated him on September 6 1901.
William Randolph Hearst
owner of the New York Journal, who published about the atrocities in Cuba to keep resentment alive and thus keep his newpaper competitive.
(1866) Secretary of State who demanded that the french withdraw from Mexico, and moved 50,000 troops to the Rio Grande until the french left. Also instigated the purchase of Alaska, Midway Islands, and annexed Hawaii and the Dominican Republic.
NEW FREEDOM- he won the election of 1912. He advocated elimintation of monopolies and tariff reform, income tax reform, currency and credi t reform, and antitrust legislation. He sponsored measure that expanded the role of the national government in regulation the economy and shaping economy's and social structure.