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242. English officials tried to "establish" the Church of England in as many colonies as possible because A) they were concerned about the eternal souls of the colonists. B) the church would act as a major prop for kingly authority. C) such an action would restore enthusiasm for religion. D) the American colonists supported such a move. E) such an action brought in more money to England.

B

243. In 1775, the _______________ churches were the only two established (tax-supported) churches in colonial America. A) Methodist and Anglican B) Presbyterian and Congregational C) Congregational and Anglican D) Quaker and Catholic E) Presbyterian and Anglican

C

244. Match each denomination on the left with the region where it predominated. A. Congregationalist B. Anglican C. Presbyterian 1. the frontier 2. New England 3. the South A) A-2, B-3, C-l B) A-2, B-1, C-3 C) A-1, B-3, C-2 D) A-3, B-2, C-1 E) A-3, B-1, C-2

A

245. As the Revolution approached, Presbyterian and Congregational ministers in general A) remained neutral. B) supported the Revolutionary cause. C) sided with the Anglican clergymen. D) opposed the idea of revolution. E) split on the issue of independence.

B

246. By the early eighteenth century, religion in colonial America was A) stronger than at any previous time. B) holding steadfastly to the belief that spiritual conversion was essential for church membership. C) moving away from clerical intellectualism. D) less fervid than when the colonies were established. E) becoming less tolerant.

D

247. The religious doctrine of the Armenians held that A) predestination determined a person's eternal fate. B) good works could get you into heaven. C) Calvin's ideas should be followed without question. D) emotion had no place in religion. E) individual free will determined a person's eternal fate.

E

248. Match each individual on the left with his or her talent. A. Jonathan Edwards B. Benjamin Franklin C. Phillis Wheatley 1. poet 2. scientist 3. theologian 4. portrait artist A) A-2, B-1, C-3 B) A-1, B-3, C-2 C) A-3, B- 2, C-1 D) A-1, B-2, C-3 E) A-2, B-3, C-1

C

249. The "new light" preachers of the Great Awakening A) delivered intensely emotional sermons. B) rarely addressed themselves to the matter of individual salvation. C) reinforced the established churches. D) were ultimately unsuccessful in arousing the religious enthusiasm of colonial Americans. E) opposed the emotionalism of the revivalists.

A

250. The Great Awakening A) undermined the prestige of the learned clergy in the colonies. B) split colonial churches into several competing denominations. C) led to the founding of Princeton, Dartmouth, and Rutgers colleges. D) was the first spontaneous mass movement of the American people. E) all of the above.

E

251. The time-honored English ideal, which Americans accepted for some time, regarded education as A) essential training for citizenship. B) designed for men and women. C) reserved for the aristocratic few. D) unimportant for leaders. E) designed for rich and poor alike.

C

252. In colonial America, education was most zealously promoted A) in the South. B) in New England. C) on the frontier. D) in the middle colonies. E) in those areas controlled by Spain.

B

253. Colonial schools and colleges placed their main emphasis on A) math. B) science. C) modern languages. D) literature. E) religion.

E

254. The first American college free from determined control was A) Harvard. B) Yale. C) New York University. D) Brown University. E) The University of Pennsylvania.

E

255. All of the following contributed to the lack of development of art and artists in early colonial America except A) simplicity of pioneering life. B) lack of subjects to paint. C) lack of talent among the Americans. D) lack of patrons who could afford the expensive art. E) lack of art schools in America.

C

256. Culture in colonial America A) involved heavy investment in art. B) was generally ignored and unappreciated. C) showed its native creativity in architecture. D) was always important to the colonists. E) for a long time rejected any European influence.

B

257. The person most often called the "first civilized American" was A) Thomas Jefferson. B) John Trumball. C) John Winthrop. D) Phillis Wheatley. E) Benjamin Franklin.

E

258. All of the following are achievements of Benjamin Franklin except A) the lightning rod. B) influential poetry. C) bifocal glasses. D) a highly efficient stove. E) author of Poor Richard's Almanack.

B

259. The jury's decision in the case of John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, was significant because A) he was found guilty. B) it supported English law. C) it pointed the way to open public discussion. D) the ruling prohibited criticism of political officials. E) it allowed the press to print irresponsible criticisms of powerful people.

C

260. One political principle that colonial Americans came to cherish above most others was A) the property qualification for voting. B) one man, one vote. C) the separation of powers. D) self-taxation through representation. E) restricting the right to vote to men only.

D

261. By 1775, most governors of American colonies were A) appointed by colonial proprietors. B) appointed by the king. C) elected by popular vote. D) elected by the vote of colonial legislatures. E) appointed by the British Parliament.

B

262. Colonial legislatures were often able to bend the power of the governors to their will because A) the governors often had a greater sense of loyalty to their colony than to the king. B) the governors were usually chosen by colonial legislatures and could be removed from office by the legislatures. C) the king generally held the views of colonial legislators in higher regard than those of the governors. D) colonial legislatures controlled taxes and expenditures that paid the governors' salaries. E) of the threat of violence.

D

263. In colonial elections, A) most eligible voters zealously exercised their right to vote. B) the right to vote was reserved for property holders. C) only a small landed elite had the right to vote. D) average citizens were usually elected to office. E) true democracy had arrived.

B

264. By the mid-eighteenth century, North American colonies shared all of the following similarities except A) complete democracy. B) basically English in language. C) Protestant in religion. D) opportunity for social mobility. E) same degree of ethnic and religious toleration.

A

265. During the seventeenth century, America established the precedent of A) staying out of European wars if possible. B) relying totally on the British for defense. C) starting wars in Europe. D) being involved in every world war since 1688. E) fighting wars on both land and sea.

D

266. The soldier and explorer whose leadership earned him the title "Father of New France" was A) Samuel de Champlain. B) Robert de La Salle. C) Antoine Cadillac. D) Des Moines. E) Edward Vincennes.

A

267. France was finally able to join in the scramble for colonies in the New World as a result of the A) Protestant takeover of the French government. B) end of the religious wars. C) revocation of the Edict of Nantes. D) St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. E) Seven Years' War.

B

268. Government in New France (Canada) was A) almost completely autocratic. B) democratic. C) similar to that of the English colonies. D) noted for its trial by jury. E) free from the king's control.

A

269. Unlike the English colonies in America, in New France A) there were no popularly elected assemblies. B) the crown refused to promote the welfare of French colonization. C) the population grew very rapidly. D) no valuable resources for exploitation existed. E) the colonists practiced religious toleration.

A

270. The one valuable resource in New France was A) fish. B) gold. C) trees. D) corn. E) beavers.

E

271. The coureurs de bois were A) French soldiers. B) French boatmen. C) Catholic priests. D) French farmers. E) French fur trappers.

E

272. The population in Catholic New France grew very slowly because A) French peasants were not allowed to move. B) the Protestant Huguenots refused to move there. C) the French government was more concerned with its Caribbean island colonies. D) disease took a heavy toll on New France's inhabitants. E) of constant attacks by the Huron Indians.

D

273. The primary economic pursuit of early settlers in New France was A) farming. B) fishing. C) mining. D) fur trapping. E) rum manufacturing.

D

274. The Indians suffered from their association with the French in New France in all of the following ways except A) exclusion from the fur business. B) decimation of their numbers by the white man's diseases. C) violation of their religious beliefs. D) debauchery by the white man's alcohol. E) weakening of their traditional way of life.

A

275. The Jesuit priests, despite their initial failure in gaining converts, played a vital role because A) of the many converts to Catholicism. B) of the health care. C) they made peace with the Indians. D) they encouraged the Indians to participate in the fur trade. E) of their exploration and work as geographers.

E

276. The French wanted to control Louisiana because they A) liked its climate. B) wanted to keep the area unfortified. C) would then control the mouth of the Mississippi. D) feared Dutch expansion into the territory. E) saw it as a dumping ground for undesirables.

C

277. French motives in the New World included the desire to A) establish agricultural communities to produce profitable staple crops. B) convert Indians to Protestantism. C) compete with Spain for an empire in America. D) provide a place for French religious dissenters to settle. E) compete with Portugal for an empire in America.

C

278. The early wars between France and Britain in North America were notable for the A) large number of troops committed by both sides. B) lack of Indian participation. C) carry over of European tactics to America. D) use of primitive guerrilla warfare. E) all of the above.

D

279. During a generation of peace following the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, Britain provided its American colonies with A) a large military presence for protection. B) decades of salutary neglect. C) higher taxes passed by Parliament. D) stronger parliamentary direction. E) all of the above.

B

280. The War of Jenkins's Ear was A) fought in European waters. B) a great victory for Spain. C) confined to the Caribbean Sea and Georgia . D) the event that established the policy of salutary neglect. E) a defeat for France.

C

281. The War of Jenkins's Ear resulted in A) France allying itself with Britain. B) British troops being involved in every territory in North America. C) France losing its vast holdings in North America. D) the colony of Georgia fighting the Spanish to a standstill. E) all of the above.

B

282. New England colonists were outraged when British diplomats returned _______________ to France in 1748. A) Hudson Bay B) Acadia C) Louisbourg D) Newfoundland E) Nova Scotia

C

283. The clash between Britain and France for control of the North American continent sprang from their rivalry for control of A) Cape Breton Island. B) the Ohio River Valley. C) the Mississippi River. D) the Great Lakes. E) the St. Lawrence River.

B

284. The reason France needed to control the Ohio Valley was to A) stop Spain from extending its empire. B) help win the War of Jenkins's Ear. C) stop the Indian attacks on its outposts. D) link its Canadian holdings with those of the lower Mississippi Valley. E) be able to put more of its settlers there in order to increase farm production.

D

285. In his first military command in the French and Indian War, George Washington A) won a decisive and hard fought battle at Fort Duquesne. B) was defeated at Fort Necessity but was allowed to retreat. C) received strong support from the British. D) helped to force the French out of Nova Scotia. E) turned his twenty years of military experience to great success.

B

286. The Seven Years' War was also known in America as A) the War of Jenkins's Ear. B) the French and Indian War. C) the War of Austrian Succession. D) King William's War. E) Queen Anne's War.

B

287. In the colonial wars before 1754, Americans A) functioned as a unified fighting force. B) received more support from France than Britain. C) demonstrated an astonishing lack of unity. D) were not involved in combat. E) rarely involved Indians in the fighting.

C

288. The immediate purpose of the Albany Congress of 1754 was to A) request the help of the British military. B) keep the Iroquois tribes loyal to the British. C) prevent the French from attacking American outposts. D) support George Washington's desire to head the colonial militia. E) block British efforts to take control of New York City.

B

289. Unlike the first three Anglo-French wars, the Seven Years' War A) won the British territorial concessions. B) united British colonists in strong support of the mother country. C) was fought initially on the North American continent. D) did not affect American colonists' attitudes toward England. E) resulted in a stronger French presence in North America.

C

290. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity; (B) General Edward Braddock is defeated near Fort Duquesne; (C) British troops capture Louisbourg in their first significant victory of the French and Indian War; (D) General James Wolfe's army defeats Montcalm's on the Plains of Abraham. (A) B, A, D, C (B) A, B, C, D (C) C, B, A, D (D) A, C, B, D (E) A, B, D, C

B

291. The long-range purpose of the Albany Congress in 1754 was to A) achieve colonial unity and common defense against the French threat. B) propose independence of the colonies from Britain. C) declare war on the Iroquois tribe. D) prohibit New England and New York from trading with the French West Indies. E) gain peace with France.

A

292. Benjamin Franklin's plan for colonial home rule was rejected by the individual colonies because A) it did not provide for the common defense. B) the British approved it. C) it did not seem to give enough independence to the colonies. D) they did not feel that they had been well represented at the Albany Congress. E) it placed too much power in the hands of local governments.

C

293. As a result of General Braddock's defeat a few miles from Fort Duquesne, A) the British controlled the frontier. B) George Washington was left without a military command. C) the frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina was open to Indian attack. D) General Braddock was forced to leave the military. E) the British called off their planned invasion of Canada.

C

294. The British invasion of Canada in 1756 during the Seven Years' War A) resulted in victory for Britain. B) concentrated on Quebec and Montreal. C) followed sound strategic planning. D) ended in defeat. E) resulted in British control of the St. Lawrence River.

D

295. When William Pitt became prime minister during the Seven Years' War, he A) ended Parliament's practice of reimbursing the colonies for their war-related expenditures. B) ordered a full-scale assault on the French West Indies. C) relied heavily on the older, more cautious generals in the British Army. D) focused his military strategy on the capture of French Canada. E) remained popular with the wealthy but not the poor.

D

296. The 1759 Battle of Quebec A) had little impact on the Seven Years' War. B) was a key turning point in Queen Anne's War. C) was a dramatic victory for the French. D) ended the war of French succession. E) ranks as one of the most significant victories in British and American history.

E

297. In the peace arrangements that ended the Seven Years' War, A) France surrendered all of its territorial claims to North America. B) England turned Florida over to Spain. C) Spain ceded all of Louisiana, including New Orleans, to Britain. $D) France lost all its valuable sugar islands in the West Indies. E) the British got all of Canada except Nova Scotia.

A

298. As a result of the Seven Years' War, Great Britain A) gained control of Louisiana. B) became the dominant power in North America. C) annexed the island of Cuba. D) gained exclusive control of the slave trade. E) all of the above.

B

299. For the American colonies, the Seven Years' War A) ended the myth of British invincibility. B) left them in need of experienced officers. C) offered the opportunity to grow closer to the British. D) gave them the opportunity finally to gain control of Mississippi. E) helped improve relations between Britain and the colonies.

A

300. During the Seven Years' War, A) colonial militiamen were impressed with the seeming invincibility of the British regulars. B) British officers roundly praised the skillful fighting ability of colonial troops. C) British officials were disturbed by the lukewarm support of many colonials. D) the colonists lost confidence in their own military capability. E) all American trade with Spain and France ended.

C

301. With the end of the Seven Years' War, the disunity, jealousy, and suspicion that had long existed in the American colonies A) continued without change. B) began to melt somewhat. C) finally came to a complete end. D) resulted in renewed acts of violence. E) none of the above.

B

302. The disunity that existed in the colonies before the Seven Years' War can be attributed to A) the enormous distances between the colonies. B) geographical barriers like rivers. C) conflicting religions. D) varied nationalities. E) all of the above.

E

303. France had to give up its vision of a North American New France when A) its fishing industry faltered. B) farming proved to be unprofitable. C) King Louis XIV died. D) it was defeated by the British in 1713 and 1763. E) it could not entice enough settlers to America.

D

304. When the Acadians left Canada, they went to A) Florida. B) Louisiana. C) France. D) Nova Scotia. E) the French West Indies.

B

305. The isolation of Louisiana's Cajun communities ended A) during the Civil War. B) only with the civil rights movement of the 1960s. C) with bridge building in the 1930s. D) with intermarriage to Germans, English, and Spanish. E) during the American Revolution.

C

306. The primary thing that the Acadians and Quebecois believed that bound them together was their A) hatred for Spain. B) desire to return to France. C) military experience. D) exile to Louisiana. E) French language.

E

307. With the British and American victory in the Seven Years' War, A) the American colonies grew closer to Britain. B) Americans now feared the Spanish. C) a new spirit of independence arose, as the French threat disappeared. D) the Indians were stopped from ever again launching a deadly attack against whites. E) the British no longer retaliated against the Indians.

C

308. In a sense, the history of the United States began with the A) Revolutionary War. B) July 4, 1776 signing of the Declaration of Independence. C) Boston Tea Party. D) founding of the first colony in 1607. E) fall of Quebec and Montreal.

E

309. With the defeat of Chief Pontiac and his alliance, the British decided to A) stabilize Indian-white relations. B) let the colonists assume financial responsibility for defending themselves. C) remove troops stationed in the colonies. D) enlist the aid of France to halt the Indian menace. E) open land west of the Appalachian mountains to settlement.

A

310. Chief Pontiac decided to try to drive the British out of the Ohio Valley because A) the British were weak as a result of the Seven Years' War. B) the British had deliberately infected Indians with smallpox. C) of the Proclamation of 1763. D) the Indians were in a precarious position. E) the French government had promised to help.

D

311. The Proclamation of 1763 was designed mainly to A) oppress the colonists. B) punish the Indians. C) show the power of Parliament. D) allow western settlement by the colonists. E) work out a fair settlement of the Indian problem.

E

312. In the wake of the Proclamation of 1763 A) American colonists obeyed the law they hated. B) relations with France improved. C) relations between the American colonies and the British government improved. D) the American colonies believed their destiny had been destroyed. E) American colonists moved west, defying the Proclamation.

E

313. The Proclamation of 1763 A) was warmly received by American land speculators. B) removed the Spanish and Indian menace from the colonial frontier. C) declared war on Chief Pontiac and his fierce warriors. D) prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. E) opened Canada to American settlement.

D

314. Change in colonial policy by the British government that helped precipitate the American Revolution involved A) removing British troops from American soil. B) beginning a war with Spain. C) removing the majority of the British navy from American waters. D) compelling the American colonists to shoulder some of the financial costs of the empire. E) all of the above.

D

315. When it came to the Revolution, it could be said that the American colonists were A) eager revolutionaries. B) up until the end wanting more than the "rights of Englishmen." C) little concerned about economics. D) clearly opposed to tightening commercial bonds to the British. E) reluctant revolutionaries.

E

316. In a broad sense, America was A) a revolutionary force from the day of its discovery by Europeans. B) a place that nurtured a love for Britain. C) completely dependent on Britain for economic support. D) a place where no new ideas took shape. E) none of the above.

A

317. The American colonial exponents of republicanism argued that a just society depends on A) a powerful central government. B) a weak army. C) a strong aristocratic tradition. D) support for hierarchical institutions. E) the willingness of all citizens to subordinate their private interests to the common good.

E

318. Republican belief held that the stability of society and the authority of the government A) rested with the legislature. B) depended on a strong hierarchical culture. C) rested with a strong monarchy. D) rested on an interdependence of all citizens. E) depended on the virtue of its citizenry.

E

319. The "radical whigs" feared A) too much democracy. B) a written constitution. C) the arbitrary power of the monarchy. D) a too powerful parliament. E) all of the above.

C

320. Mercantilists believed that A) a mother country needed to import more goods than it exported. B) power came from a small colonial empire. C) the mother country produced raw materials and colonies produced the finished product. D) a country's economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold and silver in its treasury. E) colonies drained a country of its resources.

D

321. The founding of the American colonies by the British was A) accomplished in a well-planned fashion. B) based on the high-minded aspirations of groups such as the Puritans and the Quakers. C) undertaken by the government in every case. D) undertaken in a haphazard manner. E) rarely undertaken by trading companies or religious groups.

D

322. Under mercantilist doctrine, the American colonies were expected to do all of the following except A) supply Britain with raw materials not available there. B) become economically self-sufficient as soon as possible. C) furnish ships, seamen, and trade to bolster the strength of the Royal Navy. D) provide a market for British manufactured goods. E) refrain from exporting woolen cloth.

B

323. The first Navigation Laws were designed to A) help colonists get the best possible price for their trade goods. B) eliminate Dutch shippers from the American carrying trade. C) foster a colonial economy that would offer healthy competition with Britain's. D) encourage agricultural experimentation in the colonies. E) support the mapping of the Atlantic trade routes.

B

324. The British Parliament enacted currency legislation that was intended primarily to benefit A) Virginia tobacco planters. B) British merchants. C) New England merchants. D) backwoods farmers. E) the Crown.

B

325. The British Crown's "royal veto" of colonial legislation A) was used frequently to overturn laws passed in colonial assemblies. B) prohibited colonists from conducting the slave trade. C) was what finally provoked the War of Independence. D) was used sparingly by the British Parliament. E) was opposed by many members of the British Parliament.

D

326. Under the mercantilist system, the British government reserved the right to do all of the following regarding the American colonies except A) prevent the colonies from developing militias. B) restrict the passage of lax bankruptcy laws. C) nullify any colonial legislation deemed bad for the mercantilist system. D) restrain the colonies from printing paper currency. E) enumerate products that must be shipped to Britain.

A

327. Before 1763 the Navigation Laws A) were enforced heavily in the American colonies and were very effective. B) hurt Great Britain more than the American colonies. C) were a great burden to only India. D) discouraged smuggling by American colonial merchants. E) were only loosely enforced in the American colonies.

E

328. Despite the benefits of the mercantile system, the American colonists disliked it because A) it forced the South into a one-crop economy. B) it favored the northern over the southern colonies. C) it forced economic initiative on the colonists. D) it kept them in a state of perpetual economic adolescence. E) all of the above.

D

329. In some ways, the Navigation Laws were a burden to certain colonists because A) northern merchants derived greater benefit from the system than did southern planters. B) those colonists were heavily taxed to help provide financing for the Royal Navy, which protected colonial and British trade. C) they stifled economic initiative. D) Britain had the only European empire based on mercantilistic principles. E) they gave greater benefits to slaves holders.

C

330. A new relationship between Britain and its American colonies was initiated in 1763 when ____________________ assumed charge of colonial policy. A) Charles Townshend B) George Grenville C) Lord North D) William Pitt E) King George III

B

331. Match each act below with the correct description. A. Sugar Act B. Stamp Act C. Declaratory Act 1. first British law intended to raise revenues in the colonies 2. asserted Parliament's absolute power over the colonies 3. required colonists to lodge British troops in their homes 4. generated the most protest in the colonies. A) A-3, B-2, C-l B) A-1, B-4, C-3 C) A-1, B-4, C-2 D) A-4, B-1, C-2 E) A-2, B-1, C-4

C

332. The first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenues in the colonies for the crown was the A) Stamp Act. B) Declaratory Act. C) Townshend Acts. D) Quartering Act. E) Sugar Act.

E

333. The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act to A) raise money to support new military forces needed for colonial defense. B) punish the American colonists. C) reduce the number of printed documents in America. D) enable tax collectors to become wealthy. E) raise taxes to a higher level than in Britain.

A

334. Passage of the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act A) led many colonists to believe that the British were expanding colonial freedom. B) convinced many colonists that the British were trying to take away their historic liberty. C) resulted in fewer laws being passed by Parliament regarding the colonies. D) exemplified to many colonists the difference between legislation and taxation. E) required action by each colonial legislature.

B

335. Unlike the _______________ Act, the _______________ Act and the _______________ Act were both indirect taxes on trade goods arriving in American ports. A) Townshend, Stamp, Sugar B) Stamp, Sugar, Townshend C) Stamp, Quartering, Townshend D) Declaratory, Stamp, Sugar E) Quartering, Stamp, Sugar

B

336. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) Sugar Act, (B) Declaratory Act, (C) Stamp Act, (D) repeal of the Stamp Act. (A) A, C, D, B (B) C, A, D, B (C) C, B, A, D (D) B, A, C, D (E) A, B, D, C

A

337. Colonists objected to the Stamp Act because A) it was a very expensive tax. B) they believed it could not be repealed. C) Parliament passed the tax, not the colonists. D) they opposed all taxes. E) they wanted their independence.

C

338. When colonists shouted "No taxation without representation," they were rejecting Parliament's power to A) legislate for the colonies in any matter whatsoever. B) levy revenue-raising taxes on the colonies. C) enforce the old Navigation Laws. D) regulate trade in the empire. E) choose colonial legislators who would pass taxes.

B

339. Actions taken by the colonists that helped them unite include A) the Stamp Act Congress. B) nonimportation agreements. C) spinning bees. D) the making and wearing of homemade woolen goods. E) all of the above.

E

340. "Virtual" representation meant that A) almost all British subjects were represented in Parliament. B) every member of Parliament represented all British subjects. C) colonists could elect their own representatives to Parliament. D) Parliament could pass virtually all types of legislation except taxes. E) each member of Parliament represented only people in his district.

B

341. Colonial protest against the Stamp Act took the form of A) convening a colonial congress to request repeal of the act. B) a colonial boycott against British goods. C) violence in several colonial towns. D) wearing homemade woolen clothes. E) all of the above.

E

342. As a result of American opposition to the Townshend Acts, A) British officials sent regiments of troops to Boston to restore law and order. B) the port of Boston was closed. C) Americans killed several British soldiers in the Boston Massacre. D) Parliament repealed all of the taxes levied under this legislation. E) Prime Minister Townshend was forced to resign.

A

343. The colonists took the Townshend Acts less seriously than the Stamp Act because A) they saw the futility of resistance. B) smuggling was nearly impossible. C) it was a direct tax. D) the items taxed were rarely used. E) it was light and indirect.

E

344. Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Boston Massacre, (B) Townshend Acts, (C) Tea Act, (D) Intolerable Acts. A) A, B, C, D (B) D, B, C, A (C) C, B, D, A (D) B, A, C, D (E) A, C, D, B

D

345. Match each individual on the left with the correct description. A. Samuel Adams B. John Adams C. Crispus Attucks 1. a casualty of the Boston Massacre 2. a foreign volunteer who drilled American troops during the War of Independence 3. a pamphleteer who first organized committees to exchange ideas and information on resisting British policy 4. a Massachusetts politician who opposed the moderates' solution to the imperial crisis at the First Continental Congress A) A-4, B-3, C-2 B) A-3, B-4, C-1 C) A-2, B-4, C-2 D) A-2, B-1, C-3 E) A-4, B-1, C-2

B

346. The tax on tea was retained when the Townshend Acts were repealed because A) Parliament believed the colonists would not object. B) the money was needed to support troops. C) it kept alive the principle of parliamentary taxation. D) it was the only tax passed by the colonists. E) colonial governors requested it.

C

347. The local committees of correspondence organized by Samuel Adams A) promoted his bid to become governor of Massachusetts. B) promoted independent action in each colony to support the British. C) kept opposition to the British alive, through exchange of propaganda. D) served as a precursor to the United States Postal Service. E) led the Boston Massacre.

C

348. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) clash at Lexington and Concord, (B) meeting of the First Continental Congress, (C) Quebec Act, (D) Boston Tea Party. (A) C, D, A, B (B) B, A, C, D (C) D, C, B, A (D) A, B, D, C (E) A, D, C, B

C

349. When Parliament passed the Tea Act, colonists A) rejoiced that Parliament had seemingly accepted the American definition of representation. B) suspected that it was a trick to get them to violate their principle of "No taxation without representation." C) immediately called the First Continental Congress into session. D) avoided the tax on tea by buying their tea directly from the British East India Company. E) gave up tea and turned to coffee.

B

350. The Boston Tea Party of 1773 was A) an isolated incident. B) directed only at the British East India Company. C) not the only such protest to occur. D) supported by friends of America in Britain. E) the result of the Intolerable Acts.

C

351. The most drastic measure of the Intolerable Acts was the A) Quartering Act. B) Quebec Act. C) Sugar Act. D) Courts Act. E) Boston Port Act.

E

352. The Quebec Act A) outlawed Catholicism in British Quebec. B) denied Quebec a representative assembly and trial by jury. C) restricted Quebec's boundaries to the area north of the Great Lakes. D) was generally ignored by the thirteen seaboard colonies because it had little effect on their relations with Britain. E) granted Quebec a representative assembly and trial by jury.

B

353. The Quebec Act was especially unpopular in the American colonies because it did all of the following except A) turn an extensive amount of territory over to Catholic control. B) affect many colonies, not just Massachusetts. C) deny the French the right to retain many of their old customs. D) alarm land speculators, who saw a huge area snatched from their grasp. E) it set a dangerous precedent against jury trials.

C

354. The First Continental Congress was called in order to A) consider ways of redressing colonial grievances. B) become a legislative body. C) write the Declaration of Independence. D) decide which of Parliament's taxes the colonies would and would not pay. E) help implement provisions of the Quebec Act.

A

355. The First Continental Congress A) was attended by delegates from each of the thirteen colonies. B) adopted a moderate proposal for establishing a kind of home rule for the colonies under British direction. C) made a ringing declaration of America's independence from Britain. D) called for a complete boycott of British goods. E) adjourned shortly after convening.

D

356. As a result of Parliament's rejection of the petitions of the Continental Congress, A) Americans reluctantly obeyed the British laws. B) fighting and bloodshed took place, and war began. C) Sam Adams and John Hancock were arrested. D) America sent new petitions to Parliament. E) Ben Franklin returned to the colonies since his efforts failed.

B

357. As the War for Independence began, Britain had the advantage of A) overwhelming national wealth and naval power. B) an alliance with Spain and Holland. C) a well-organized and united home government and population. D) first-rate generals and a well-supplied professional army. E) all of the above.

A

358. All of the following were weaknesses of the British military during the War for Independence except A) second-rate officers. B) soldiers who were incapable of fighting effectively. C) the need to keep many soldiers in Europe in case of trouble. D) the long supply lines. E) brutal treatment of their soldiers.

B

359. Many Whigs in Britain hoped for an American victory in the War for Independence because they A) favored French domination of North America. B) were strongly pacifist. C) feared that if George III triumphed, his rule at home might become tyrannical. D) rejected colonialism. E) opposed the mercantilist system.

C

360. As the War for Independence began, the colonies had the advantage of A) highly reliable and well-supplied troops. B) potential aid from the Armed Neutrality League. C) a well-organized, strongly committed, and united population. D) many outstanding civil and military leaders. E) able naval leaders.

D

361. The colonists faced all of the following weaknesses in the War for Independence except A) poor organization. B) sectional jealousy, which constantly interfered with the appointment of military leaders. C) great difficulties in raising money to support the army. D) the use of numerous European officers. E) a weak central authority running the war effort.

D

362. By the end of the War for Independence, A) the majority of Americans supported independence with selfless devotion. B) America had an army larger than Britain's. C) the American military no longer needed foreign assistance. D) a few thousand American regular troops were finally whipped into shape. E) America had built a strong navy.

D

363. African Americans during the Revolutionary War A) fought for both the Americans and the British. B) fought only for the British. C) fought only for the Americans. D) supported neither side, as both enslaved them. E) seized the opportunity to gain their freedom by running away to Barbados.

A

364. Regarding American independence, A) a majority of Americans supported the cause selflessly. B) most of the American business community sacrificed profit for victory. C) France gave little assistance. D) only a select minority supported independence with selfless devotion. E) Spain was in total opposition.

D

365. When the Second Continental Congress met in 1775, A) its members felt a strong desire for independence. B) it cut off communications with the British government. C) it continued to stall on the creation of an army and navy. D) there was no well-defined sentiment for independence. E) the conservative element was weakened.

D

366. Perhaps the most important single action of the Second Continental Congress was to A) select George Washington to head the army. B) draft new appeals to the king. C) adopt measures to raise money. D) postpone an immediate demand for independence. E) support independence.

A

367. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) fighting at Lexington and Concord, (B) convening of the Second Continental Congress, (C) publication of Common Sense, (D) adoption of the Declaration of Independence. (A) B, C, A, D (B) A, B, C, D (C) A, C, D, B (D) C, D, A, B (E) A, B, D, C

B

368. As commander of America's Revolutionary army, George Washington exhibited all of the following except A) military genius. B) courage. C) a sense of justice. D) moral force. E) patience.

A

369. The Revolutionary War began with fighting in __________; then in 1777-1778, fighting was concentrated in __________; and the fighting concluded in __________. A) the South, the middle colonies, New England B) the middle colonies, New England, the South C) New England, the South, the middle colonies D) New England, the middle colonies, the South E) the middle colonies, the South, New England

D

370. George Washington's selection to lead the colonial army was A) a poor choice. B) largely political. C) based solely on military experience. D) opposed by New Englanders. E) done with no misgivings.

B

371. In 1775, once fighting between the colonies and Great Britain began, A) America immediately declared its independence. B) the tempo of warfare diminished. C) the colonists denounced the Parliament. D) the colonists affirmed their loyalty to the King. E) all of the above.

D

372. The colonial army eventually lost the Battle of Bunker Hill because its troops were A) outnumbered. B) short of gunpowder. C) poorly organized. D) poor shots. E) lacking in courage.

B

373. King George III officially declared the colonies in rebellion just after A) the armed clash at Lexington and Concord. B) the First Continental Congress convened. C) the Battle of Bunker Hill. D) Benedict Arnold's forces' captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point. E) hiring Hessian solders to fight in America.

C

374. The Olive Branch Petition A) was passed by Parliament. B) was an expression of King George III's desire for peace. C) promised no treason charges if colonists stopped fighting. D) was an attempt by the colonists to gain support of Native Americans. E) professed American loyalty to the crown.

E

375. With the American invasion of Canada in 1775, A) the French Canadians took the opportunity to revolt against British control. B) Benedict Arnold seized the occasion to desert to the British. C) the colonials' claim that they were merely fighting defensively for a redress of grievances was contradicted. D) the Revolution became a world war. E) George III declared the colonies in rebellion.

C

376. The colonists' invasion of Canada in 1775 A) contradicted the American claim that they were only fighting defensively. B) was of little strategic value for the colonists. C) was eagerly welcomed by French-Canadian leaders. D) resulted in the capture of both Montreal and Quebec. E) resulted in Benedict Arnold's defection to Great Britain.

A

377. The colonists delayed declaring their independence until July 4, 1776, for all of the following reasons EXCEPT A) lack of military victories. B) support for the tradition of loyalty to the empire. C) the realization that the colonies were not united. D) fear of British military reprisals. E) a continued belief that America was part of the transatlantic community.

A

378. One purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to A) warn other nations to stay out of the Revolution. B) ask for an end to slavery. C) appeal for fairer treatment by Parliament. D) explain to the rest of the world why the colonies had revolted. E) condemn Parliament for its actions.

D

379. In a republic, power A) comes from the aristocrats. B) comes from a select few based on religion. C) comes from the people themselves. D) resides in property owners. E) belongs only to the educated.

C

380. Thomas Paine's pamphlet Common Sense A) was published before any fighting took place between the colonists and the British. B) remained unpopular for several years before being accepted by the public. C) called for American independence and the creation of a democratic republic. D) called on the British people to overthrow the king. E) led to Paine's eventual arrest and imprisonment in America.

C

381. Thomas Paine argued that all government officials A) were corrupt. B) should derive their authority from popular consent. C) should be part of a "natural aristocracy." D) need not listen to the voice of the uneducated. E) should not be paid for their service.

B

382. The resolution that "These United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states..." was introduced into the Second Continental Congress by Virginia delegate A) Patrick Henry. B) Thomas Jefferson. C) Richard Henry Lee. D) Thomas Paine. E) John Adams.

C

383. The feasibility of representative government had been demonstrated in the A) militia movement. B) Olive Branch Petition. C) Declaration of Independence. D) committees of correspondence. E) all of the above.

D

384. Examples of colonial experience with self-governance, which prepared Americans for a republic, included all of the following except A) New England town meetings. B) committees of correspondence. C) militia service. D) the relative equality of landowning farmers. E) the absence of a hereditary aristocracy.

C

385. Most Americans considered which of the following to be fundamental for any successful republican government? A) a wealthy class to govern B) the primacy of the property rights of individuals C) primacy of the interests of individuals D) retention of a constitutional monarchy E) civic virtue

E

386. When America became a republic and political power no longer rested with an all-powerful king, A) the American colonies were able to gain their independence. B) England experienced the Glorious Revolution. C) individuals needed to sacrifice their own self-interest to the public good. D) chaos gripped the nation. E) all of the above.

C

387. Which individual privately advocated equality for women? A) Betsy Ross B) Thomas Jefferson C) Martha Washington D) Benjamin Franklin E) Abigail Adams

E

388. The Declaration of Independence did all of the following except A) invoke the natural rights of humankind to justify revolt. B) catalog the tyrannical actions of King George III. C) argue that royal tyranny justified revolt. D) offered the British one last chance at reconciliation. E) accused the British of violating the natural rights of the Americans.

D

389. Americans who opposed independence for the colonies were labeled __________ or _______________, and the independence-seeking Patriots were also known as _______________. A) Tories, Whigs, Loyalists B) Loyalists, Tories, Whigs C) Whigs, Tories, Loyalists D) Loyalists, Whigs, Tories E) Sons of Liberty, Tories, Whigs

B

390. Like many revolutions, the American Revolution was A) a majority movement. B) a minority movement. C) started by forces outside the country. D) one in which little attention was given to those civilians who remained neutral. E) one which produced a minimum of violence.

B

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