Drugs and Behavior Test 1, Ch2

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40 terms

Neurons

Specialized cells involved in the rapid transmission of information.

Neurons

Sensory, motor, and inter-

Neurons

Can conduct bioelectric signals for long distances without any loss of signal strength.
They possess synapses.
They have plasticity.

Convergence

Each neuron can receive info from thousands of other neurons.

Divergence

Integrated information can be transmitted to thousands of other neurons.

Glial cells

Provide support and insulation for neurons. More than 10x the amount of neurons. Are both macro and micro.

Macroglia

Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells are all considered:

Microglia

These are involved in immune function within the brain. Act as scavengers to remove dying cells at the site of damage.

Astrocytes

These provide support and insulation; also accumulate glucose and synthesize glycogen; take up excess neurochemicals.

Oligodendrocytes

Form myelin sheath around axons in the CNS.

Schwann Cells

Form myelin sheath around axons in the PNS.

Resting membrane potential

-70mV

Na and Cl

In higher concentrations outside the cell and cannot move freely through channels. (2)

K

Is higher inside the cell and can move freely inside the cell and through channels.

Diffusional Forces

Move Na into the cell and move K out.

Electrochemical forces

Move Na into the cell and forces K to stay in the cell.

Depolarization

Change in potential toward a less polarized state (toward zero).

Hyperpolarization

Change in potential toward a more polarized state (more negative state, or AWAY from zero).

Action potential

A change in membrane potential propagated down an axon that is the basis for rapid transmission of information.

Axon hillock

The wide portion of the axon adjacent the soma where action potential is initially generated.

Sacral

Parasympathetic nerves are located in cranial and _____ nerves.

Thoracic

Sympathetic nerves are located in ______ and lumbar nerves.

Autonomic

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic are part of what nervous system?

Peripheral Nervous System

Somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary) make up this.

Dura mater

"Tough mother"

Arachnoid

CSF to float brain/ lower brain weight/ and cushion.

Gray Matter

This includes cell bodies of sensory and motor neurons.

White Matter

This includes myelinated axons of sensory and motor neurons

Hindbrain

Location of vomiting and respiratory drive centers.

Myelencephalon

Includes the medulla, which is responsible for vital survival functions.

Metencephalon

Includes the cerebellum (movement/balance), pons (alerness, locus coeruleus, and raphe nuclei), and the reticular formation (arousal/attention/sleep).

hindbrain

Includes the myelencephalon and metencephalon.

Mesencephalon

Includes the tectum and tegmentum (periaquaductal gray, substantia nigra, VTA).

Forebrain

Made up of the diencephalon and telencephalon.

Diencephalon

Includes the thalamus (sensory/motor info) and the hypothalamus (SNS, motivated behavior).

Telencephalon

Includes the neocortex (cerebral cortex), basal ganglia (modulates movement), and limbic system (mood, emotions, learning, memory)

Frontal

Lobes important for decision making and personality.

Parietal

Lobes important for touch, temperature, and pain.

Temporal

Lobes important for hearing (primary auditory cortex).

Occipital

Lobes important for vision (V1).

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