Specialized cells involved in the rapid transmission of information.
Sensory, motor, and inter-
Can conduct bioelectric signals for long distances without any loss of signal strength.
They possess synapses.
They have plasticity.
Each neuron can receive info from thousands of other neurons.
Integrated information can be transmitted to thousands of other neurons.
Provide support and insulation for neurons. More than 10x the amount of neurons. Are both macro and micro.
Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells are all considered:
These are involved in immune function within the brain. Act as scavengers to remove dying cells at the site of damage.
These provide support and insulation; also accumulate glucose and synthesize glycogen; take up excess neurochemicals.
Form myelin sheath around axons in the CNS.
Form myelin sheath around axons in the PNS.
Resting membrane potential
Na and Cl
In higher concentrations outside the cell and cannot move freely through channels. (2)
Is higher inside the cell and can move freely inside the cell and through channels.
Move Na into the cell and move K out.
Move Na into the cell and forces K to stay in the cell.
Change in potential toward a less polarized state (toward zero).
Change in potential toward a more polarized state (more negative state, or AWAY from zero).
A change in membrane potential propagated down an axon that is the basis for rapid transmission of information.
The wide portion of the axon adjacent the soma where action potential is initially generated.
Parasympathetic nerves are located in cranial and _____ nerves.
Sympathetic nerves are located in ______ and lumbar nerves.
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic are part of what nervous system?
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary) make up this.
CSF to float brain/ lower brain weight/ and cushion.
This includes cell bodies of sensory and motor neurons.
This includes myelinated axons of sensory and motor neurons
Location of vomiting and respiratory drive centers.
Includes the medulla, which is responsible for vital survival functions.
Includes the cerebellum (movement/balance), pons (alerness, locus coeruleus, and raphe nuclei), and the reticular formation (arousal/attention/sleep).
Includes the myelencephalon and metencephalon.
Includes the tectum and tegmentum (periaquaductal gray, substantia nigra, VTA).
Made up of the diencephalon and telencephalon.
Includes the thalamus (sensory/motor info) and the hypothalamus (SNS, motivated behavior).
Includes the neocortex (cerebral cortex), basal ganglia (modulates movement), and limbic system (mood, emotions, learning, memory)
Lobes important for decision making and personality.
Lobes important for touch, temperature, and pain.
Lobes important for hearing (primary auditory cortex).
Lobes important for vision (V1).