What shaped Greek civilization?
What were important transportation routes?
Aegean, Ionian, and the black sea
What did Greece lack?
What does suitable for farming mean?
What divided the Greeks land into several different regions?
What was Greece never able to support?
a large population
Who were people that settled on the Greek mainland?
What influenced the Mycenaean culture?
What was the main way that the minoans influenced the mycenaeans?
Who did the mycenaeans fight a ten- year war against?
What caused the Mycenaeans to collapse?
sea raiders attacked
What group came after the mycenaeans?
Why were the Dorians apart of the "dark ages of greece?"
no written records exist
Who was the greatest storyteller?
What is a narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds?
What are two of homers epic poems?
Iliad and the Odyssey
What word means virtue and excellence?
What are traditional short stories?
What is a city state that was the fundamental political unit in ancient Greece?
What was a polis made of?
city and its countryside
What was a fortified hilltop that citizens gathered to discuss city government?
What is the type of government where a king rules?
What is the type of government that is ruled by a small group of noble families?
What is the type of government that is ruled by a few powerful people?
Who are powerful individuals that seized control of the governments by appealing to the common people for support?
What city- state went through power struggles between rich and poor?
What is the type of government that is ruled by the people?
Who founded democracy?
Who outlawed debt slavery?
The athenians were organized into 4 social classes based on what?
Who was the ruler that broke up the power of the nobility by organizing citizens into 10 groups based on where they lived?
What did the Council of 500 do?
proposed laws and counseled the assembly
What city- state contrasted sharply with Athens?
What kind of government did sparta have?
military and oligarchy
What neighboring region did sparta take over the land?
Who are peasants that are forced to stay on the land they worked?
What were the 3 branches of spartan government?
assembly, council of elders, and 5 elected officials
What did the assembly do?
voted on major issues
What did the council of elders do?
What did the 5 elected officials do?
carried out the laws passed by the assembly
What were the 3 spartan social order groups?
inhabitants of the region, free noncitizens, and helots
What did spartan society value?
duty, strength, and discipline
What replaced bronze?
What is a fearsome formation that became the most powerful fighting force in the ancient world?
What was the war between Greece and Persia?
Who won in the persian wars?
Who was the ruler of Persia during the Persian Wars?
darius the great
Who assembled an enormous invasion to crush greece?
What was the mountain pass where the first battle occured between Xerxes and Greece?
When Themistocles convinced the Greeks to evacuate the city and fight at sea, where did they fight?
What happened at the Battle of Plataea?
Greeks crushed the Persian army
Several Greek city- states formed an alliance called what?
Who became the leader of the Delian league?
Who led Athens during much of its golden age?
What were the three goals that Pericles had?
to strength Athenian democracy
to hold and strengthen the empire
to glorify Athens
How did Pericles strengthen the democracy?
increased the number of public officials
What is the type of government in which the citizens ruled directly and not through representatives?
What was Athens strongest miliary aspect?
How did Pericles make the Athenian navy so strong?
used money from the Delian League's treasury
What was the masterpiece that Pericles used to glorify Athens?
Who did the Parthenon honor?
What is the art of Greece in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized?
What were the two kinds of dramas that Greek people wrote?
tragedy and comedy
What is the kind of drama that is about common themes such as love, hate, war, and betrayal?
What was the kind of drama that contained scenes that were filled with slapstick situations and crude humor?
Who fought in the Peloponnesian War?
athens and sparta
Who had a stronger army, Athens or Sparta?
Who had a stronger navy, Athens or Sparta?
What was Pericles strategy during the Peloponnesian War?
to avoid land battles and fight on the sea
What struck Athens in the middle of the Peloponnesian War?
How did the Peloponnesian War end?
sparta and athens signed a truce
Who are "lovers of wisdom?"
Who are three important philosophers during the Greek age?
Socrates, Pluto, and Aristotle
Which philosopher believed that absolute standards did exist for truth and justice?
Which philosopher wrote down the conversations of Socrates "as a means of philosophical investigation?"
Which philosopher questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge?
Who was one of Aristotle's greatest pupils?
Who was the king that dreamed of taking control of Greece and then moved against Persia to seize its vast wealth?
What area did Philip II and Alexander the Great rule?
What was the Macedonians one important resource?
their shrewd and fearless kings
What was the battle that the Macedonians defeated Greece in?
Battle of Chaeronea
What did the Battle of Chaeronea end for Greece?
When Philip II died who took his place?
Alexander the Great
Who was the Persian king that vowed to crush the invaders of Macedonia?
Who won the war between Macedonia and Persia?
What 3 cultures were infused in with the Macedonian culture?
Egyptian, Persian, and Indian
Alexander was going to fight in Egypt, but what happened?
they named him pharaoh
What city did Alexander the Great establish in Egypt?
How far did Alexander the Great get before his army said they wanted to return home?
the Indus River
Once Alexander died, what did his Macedonian generals do?
they fought over control of the empire.
What 3 leaders won in taking over the Macedonian empire?
Antigonus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus
What is the word meaning relating to the civilization, language, art, science, and literature of the Greek world from the reign of Alexander the Great?
What was the popular spoken language that was used in Hellenistic cities, meaning "common?"
What was the center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization?
What were Alexandria's two most famous attractions?
museum and library
Who were the three people that reached significant scientific discoveries during the Hellenistic age?
Aristarchus, Ptolemy, and Eratosthenes
Who was the highly regarded mathematician who taught in Alexandria?
Who was the person that accurately estimated the value of pi and explained the law of the lever?
Who founded the school of philosophy called Stoicism?
What school of philosohpy proposed that people should live virtuous lives in harmony with the will of God or the natural laws that God established to run the universe?
Who founded the school of the thought?
What school of thought believed that the gods who had no interest in humans ruled the universe?
What is the bronze statue that was created on the island of Rhodes is the largest known Hellenistic statue standing more than 100 feet high?
Colossus of Rhodes