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The Gilded Age by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner

book written by two American authors that gave this period its namesake

Rutherford B. Hayes

a republican governor from Ohio. He had spent majority of his term as governor reforming the government and politics within Ohio. He was elected president in 1876 by the Compromise of 1877. _______ was known as the "caretaker" president because he just took care of the country.

James A. Garfield

elected to presidency in 1880. He barely won the popular vote but won by a huge margin in the electoral college. He was assassinated so Stalwarts could be in power in the government. This brought about reforms in the spoils systems.

Chester A. Arthur

became president after the assassination of Garfield. This 21st president, who served from 1881 to 1885, rose above the political corruption prevalent during the times and headed a reform-oriented administration that enacted the first comprehensive U.S. civil service legislation. He supported the passage of the Pendleton Act in 1883.

Grover Cleveland

the democratic presidential candidate for the 1884 election. His republican opponent, James G. Blaine, was involved in several questionable deals , but ____________ had an illegitimate child. Consequently, the election turned into a mudslinging contest. ______________ won, becoming the first democratic president since Buchanan. He took few initiatives, but he was effective in dealing with excessive military pensions. He placated both North and South by appointing some former Confederates to office, but sticking mostly with Northerners. _____________ also forced Congress to discuss lowering the tariff, although the issue could not be resolved before he was defeated by Benjamin Harrison in the 1888 election.

Benjamin Harrison

called "Young Tippecanoe" because of grandfather William Henry ____________. Republican elected president in 1888. Opponent, Grover Cleveland. had more popular votes but _____________ put in office because of more electoral votes; pro-business, protariff, initiated high congressional spending

Charles Guiteau

shot President Grafield in the back in a Washington railroad station. _________ allegedly committed this crime so that Arthur, a stalwart, would become President. _________'s attorneys used a plea of insanity, but failed and __________ was hung for murder. After this event politics began to get cleaned up with things like the Pendelton Act.

Pendleton Act (1883)

This was what some people called the Magna Carta of civil-service reform. It prohibited, at least on paper, financial assessments on jobholders. It created a merit system of making appointments to government jobs on the basis of aptitude rather than who you know, or the spoils system. It set up a Civil Service Commission, chaired with administering open competitive examinations to applicants for posts in the classified service. The people were forced, under this law, to take an exam before being hired to a governmental job position.

Civil Service Commission

created by Pendleton Act to oversee examinations for potential government employees

laissez-faire economics

hands off approach to government; the government should not interfere in the economy

Horatio Alger

Writer of novels stressing rags to riches stories of boys

Roscoe Conkling

the leader of a group for Republicans called the Stalwarts. These people loved the spoils system and supported it wherever it was threatened. They were opposed by the Half-Breeds led by James G. Blaine. ________, a senator from New York, and Blaine's infighting caused the nomination of the politically neutral Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876.

Social Darwinism

Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.

Herbert Spencer

English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)

William Graham Sumner

He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.

Blue laws

Regulation that prohibited certain private activities people considered immoral, such as drinking alcohol on Sundays

Blaine amendments

Provisions that exist in most state constitutions that forbid the government from directly aiding educational institutions with religious affiliations; first proposed by US Grant and backed by James Blaine

Stalwarts

________________, who favored the spoils system of political patronage, were lead by New York Senator Roscoe Conkling. The battle over patronage split the Republican party into two factions

Halfbreeds

They argued with the Stalwarts on the issues of who would control the party of machine and would distribute patronage jobs. The ________ supported civil service reform and merit appointments to government posts. They were joined together as the Republican party, but disputes over patronage split it into two

James G. Blaine

a Republican Congressman, senator, secretary of state under Garfield, and a presidential candidate under the Republican Half-Breeds, who ran against Conkling. ______ was considered one of the most popular Republicans of his time, and was elemental in his party's success in elections.

Mugwumps

This term designated dissident members of the Republican party, who, in the presidential election of 1884, refused to support the nominee of their party, James G. Blaine. Instead, they supported the Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland, who was later elected. The term was first used derisively in a New York City newspaper, the Sun.

"Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"

At a rally on election eve, a clergyman denounced the Democrats as the party of "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion." Blaine failed to repudiate the remark and the Democrats widely publicized this insult to Catholics, drinkers and patriotic Democrats. Blaine's mistake allowed Cleveland to obtain New York's electoral votes.

machine politics

a disciplined political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts

patronage system

a practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party—as opposed to a system of awarding offices on the basis of some measure of merit independent of political activity

Greenback - Labor Party

formed in 1876 with James Weaver as its presidential candidate. The party adopted the debtors' cause, fought to keep greenbacks in circulation, and promoted the inflation of farm prices. The party elected 14 members to Congress . As prosperity returned, the __________ faded.

Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

A group of women who advocated total abstinence from alcohol and who worked to get laws passed against alcohol.

Frances Willard

an American educator, temperance reformer, and women's suffragist. Her influence was instrumental in the passage of the Eighteenth (Prohibition) and Nineteenth (Women Suffrage) Amendments to the United States Constitution.

Jim Crow laws

State laws which created a racial caste system in the South. They included the laws which prevented blacks from voting and those which created segregated facilities.

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

ruled that seperate but equal facilities based upon race is constitutional

Redeemers

Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.

White supremacy campaigns

Belief in the inherent superiority of whites over the rest of humanity; peaked in the period before world war I

Ida B. Wells

the lynching of blacks outraged her, an african american journalist. in her newspaper, free speech, wells urged african americans to protest the lynchings. she called for a boycott of segregated street cars and white owned stores. she spoke out despite threats to her life.

Booker T. Washington

An educator who urged blacks to better themselves through education and economic advancement, rather than by trying to attain equal rights. In 1881 he founded the first formal school for blacks, the Tuskegee Institute.

Atlanta Compromise (1895)

Booker T. Washington's speech encouraged blacks to seek a vocational education in order to rise above their second-class status in society.

Tuskegee Institute

Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper

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