Medical Terminology - Respiratory System

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Pacific College Medical Terminology with Dr. Adriano Borgna L. Ac.

Nose

It is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which admit and expel air for respiration. It also houses the nosehairs, which catch airborne particles and prevent them from reaching the lungs. Within and behind the nose there is the olfactory mucosa and the sinuses.

turbinate

(or nasal concha) is a long, narrow and curled bone shelf (shaped like an elongated sea-shell) which protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose. The turbinates divide the nasal airway into three groove-like air passages -and are responsible for forcing inhaled air to flow in a steady, regular pattern around the largest possible surface of cilia and climate controlling tissue.

Sinus

A sinus is a sack or cavity in any organ or tissue, or an abnormal cavity or passage caused by the destruction of tissue.

Paranasal sinuses

Paranasal sinuses are air-filled spaces, communicating with the nasal cavity, within the bones of the skull and face The paranasal sinuses are joined to the nasal cavity via small orifices called ostia.

Pharynx

The section of the alimentary canal that extends from the mouth and nasal cavities to the larynx, where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

Larynx

Voice box

Epiglottis

The thin elastic cartilaginous structure located at the root of the tongue

Trachea

A thin-walled, cartilaginous tube descending from the larynx to the bronchi and carrying air to the lungs. Also called windpipe.

Bronchi

The two main brances of the trachea, leading directly to the lugns.

Bronchiole

The fine, thing-walled, tubular extensions of a bronchus.

Alveoli

A tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac in the lung where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. Also called air sac.

Mediastinum

The region in mammals between the pleural sacs, containing the heart and all of the thoracic viscera except the lungs.

Diaphragm

A muscular membranous partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities and functioning in respiration. Also called midriff.

Pleura

A thin serous membrane in mammals that envelops each lung and folds back to make a lining for the chest cavity.

Hilum

The area through which ducts, nerves, or blood vessels enter and leave a gland or organ.

bilateral

Both sides

hilar

In the region of the Hilum

Adenopathy

Enlargement of the lymphnodes

Adenoids

One of two masses of lymphoid tissue located at the back of the nose in the upper part of the throat that may obstruct normal breathing and make speech difficult when swollen. Often used in the plural.

Adenoidectomy

Surgical removal of the adenoids

Cilia

Cilia are thin, tail-like projections extending approximately 5 - 10 micrometers outwards from the cell body. There are two types of cilia: motile cilia, which constantly beat in one direction, and non-motile cilia, which typically serve as sensory organelles.

Cilium or Flagellum

They have microtubule dependent molecular motors (dynine)

Mucocilliary elevator

Brings the mucus upward so it can be swallowed and digested by the gastric juices

Pulmonary parenchyma

The tissue of the lung performing its function; the alveoli and the small bronchioles

COPD

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

COPD (examples)

Asthma, Chronic Bronchitis, Emphysema

Asthma

A chronic reversible resperatory disease that is characterized by sudden recurring attacks of labored breathing, chest constriction, and coughing. Asthma attack is often triggered by cold, allergies, pollution, emotional factors, and other unidentified factors.

Chronic Bronchitis

Is defined clinically as a persisten cough that produces sputum matter that is coughed up from the respiratory tract, for at least three months in two consecutive years.

Emphisema

A pathological condition of the lungs marked by an abnormal increase in the size of the air spaces, resulting in labored breathing and an increased susceptibility to infection. It can be caused by irreversable expansion of the alveoli or by the destruction of the alveolar walls.

Emphysima

It is chracterized by loss of elasticity of the lung tissue, destruction of structures supporting the alveoli, and destruction of capillaries feeding the alveoli. The result is that the small airwars collapse during expiration, leading to an obstructive form of lung disease (airflow is impeded and air is generally "trapped" in the lungs in obstructive lung diseases).

Pneumothorax

is collection of air or gas in the sapce surrounding the lung

Atelectasis

(1) Total or partial collapse of the lung. (2) A congenital condition characterized by the incomplete expansion of the lungs at birth.

-pnea

breathing

Apnea

cessation of breathing

Dyspnea

difficulty breathing

Hyperpnea

increase in the depth of breathing

Bradypnea

slow breathing

Tachypnea

fast breathing

Prthopnea

difficulty breathing when lying down

Phon/o

voice

Dysphonia

hoarsness

Aphonia

loss of voice

Rhin/o

Nose

Rhinorrhea

liquid discharge through the nose

Rhinoplasty

aesthetic surgery of the nose

Aestetic

Gk. /aisthetikos/ "sensitive," from /aisthanesthai/ "to perceive, to feel,"

-esthesia

sensation

Anesthesia

no sensation

Paraesthesia

abnormal sensation

Hypoesthesia

low sensation

Hyperesthesia

increased sensation

Pulmonary

belongs to the lungs

Pulmonaryabscess

a large collection of pus in the lungs

Pulmonaryedema

swelling and fluids in the air sacs and bronchioles

Pulmonaryembolism (PE)

clot or other material lodged in the vessels (arteries of the lung)

Pulmonaryfibrosis

scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lung

Sarcoidosis

Chronic inflammatory disease in which small nodules or tubercules develop in the lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs.

Mesothelioma

A usually malignant tumor of mesothelial tissue, especially that of pleura or peritoneum.

Pleural effusion

The seeping of serous, purulent, or bloody fluid into a body cavity or tissue

Rale

An abnormal respiratory sound characterized by fine crackles

Ronchi

Course rattlin sound somewhat like snoring, usually caused by secretion in a bronchial airway

Wheezing

A continuous, course, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing.

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