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Questions for General Biology II that covers the nervous system, digestive system among others.

axon

sends information away from neuron

dendrites

receives information into the neuron

soma (cell body)

contains nucleus and organelles. electrical and chemical reactions take place in cell body.

catabolism

breaking down large molecules such as proteins to amino acids.

anabolism

building up molecules such as nucleotides into DNA.

metabolic rate

the rate at which organisms use energy to power cellular processes

glycogen

excess glucose stored by the liver

organic nutrients

proteins
nucleic acids
vitamins
carbohydrates
lipids

inorganic nutrients

water
minerals

crop

dilation of the esophagus that stores and softens food

proventriculus

secrets acids and enzymes

gizzard

contains tiny pebbles that pulverize food

cloaca

excretes undigested material

4 phases of nutrient consumption

ingestion
digestion
absorption
elimination

essential nutrients

must be consumed in their complete form in the diet

amino acids

building blocks of protein

8 essential amino acids

isoleucine
leucine
lysine
methionine
phenylalanine
threonine
tryptophan
valine

polyunsaturated acids

cannot be synthesized by animal cells

coenzyme

organic compound that temporarily binds to the surface to promote chemical reaction

adipose

fatt tissue

suspension feeders

animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water

bulk feeders

animals that chew or swallow food such as anaconda's humans and cows

fluid feeders

animals that feed on the fluid of other organisms

pepsinogen

converted to pepsin to begin protein digestion (acidic conditions)

hydrochloric acid

kills microbes

cellulase

breaks down cellulose

gallbladder

stores bile

liver

site of bile production

lactase

digests lactose

amylase

breaks down carbohydrates starting in the mouth

pepsin

breaks down proteins in the stomach

phagocytosis

cellular process of engulfing solid particles by the cell membrane

intracellular digestion

digestion using phagocytosis to bring food directly into the cell

extracecellular digestion

digestion outside the cell, usually in a cavety of some sort

gastrovascular cavity

explain how it occus in hydra

heartburn

stomach acid rising into the esophagus

simple stomach

single dilation of the alimentary canal

true stomach

produces hydrochloric acid

hydrolytic enzyme

any of the enzymes that behave like a hydrolase

glycogen

excess glucose stored in the liver and muscles

gluconeogenesis

generating new glucose

metabolism

general term for chemical reactions taking place in an organism

excess protein

stored as fat

(what happens to) carbohydrates?

broken down into glucose and used to synthesize ATP

(what happens to) triglycerides?

used during absorptive phase for energy

(what happens to) proteins?

converted to amino acids. Excess is converted and stored as fat by the liver

glycolysis

process of breaking down glycogen from muscle and liver into glycogen

glycogenolysis

conversion of glycogen polymers to glucose monomers

glycogenolysis (takes place in the)

a process that takes place in the liver

absorptive stage

carbohydrates
proteins
triglycerides

postabsorptive stage

glucose is regulated by the pancreas.

4 types of heat exchange

conduction - loss or gain of heat through direct contact
convection - wind cooling body
evaporation - evaporation of water from the body
radiation - emission of electromagnetic waves

endothermic homeotherms

animals that can generate their own body heat

ectothermic heterotherms

animals that cannot generate their own body heat

BMR

basal metabolic rate

(what is the relationship between) BMR and body mas

Generally, larger animals have lower BMR, such as humans and elephants whereas smaller animals such as mice and rats have higher BMR's.

homeotherms

animals that maintain their body temperature within a narrow range

heterotherms

animals that have body temperatures that vary with the environment

torpor

lowering the body temperature to that of just above the environment

hibernation

extended period of torpor

glucagen

protein harmone that stimulates glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis process and synthesis of ketone's in the liver

leptin

produced in adipose tissue and acts on hypothalamus to reduce appetite and increase metabolic rate

neurons

cells that send and receive chemical and electrical signals

4 types of glial cells

astrocytes - provides metabolic support for neurons
microglia - dispose of cellular debris produced by dying cells
oliodengrocytes - mylin producing glial cells in the CNS
Schwann cells - mylin producing glial cells in the PNS

3 parts of a neuron

axon
dendrites
soma (cell body)

resting potential

the membrane potential of a cell that is not sending impulses

electrical gradient

determines information flow through neuron

electrical signal

communication between neurons

action potential

all or none. cannot be graded

graded potential

potential that can graded by volts

countercurrent heat exchange

heat is transferred from the arteries to nearby veins, thereby reducing heat loss to the water

phospholipids

essential fatty acid required for making cell membrane

polarized

when a neuron has a net positive charge on the outside and a net negative charge on the inside

CNS

central nervous system

PNS

peripheral nervous system

(what makes up the) CNS (in vertebrates)

brain and spinal chord

what makes up the PNS

all other axons and nervous tissue outside the CNS

sponges

only group of animals that do not have neurons

4 levels of organization

cells
tissue
organ
system (organ system)
organism

4 types tissue

muscle
nervous
epithelial
connective

3 types of muscle tissue

skeletal - attached to bone
smooth - surrounds hollow tubes and cavities
cardiac - only in the heart, involuntary control

(3 general purposes to an) electrical signal (from the nervous system)

initiate new electrical signals
stimulate muscle to contract
stimulate glands to release chemicals

epithelial tissue

sheets of densely-packed cells

epithelial tissue

cover the body or individual organs

epithelial tissue

tissue that protect and secrete or absorb

connective tissue

blood
adipose
bone
cartilage
loose and dense tissue

reticulum

contains microbes for digesting cellulose

rumen

forms part of the reticulum

omasum

absorbs salts and water from partially chewed food

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