eNGLISH fINALS

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Archaic

No longer used or applicable; ancient

Argot

special words or phrases used by a specific group of people

Connotation

refers to the implied or suggested meanings associated with a word beyond its dictionary definition

denotation

the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression

idiom

an expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up

jargon

specialized technical terminology characteristic of a particular subject

pidgin

a simplified form of speech developed from two or more languages

semantics

the study of meaning in language

standard

conforming to the established language used by educated speakers

vernacular

the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)

Atlas

a collection of maps in book form

epicure

person with refined taste in food and wine

galvanize

to stimulate to action

jovial

jolly

nemesis

one who inflicts justified or great punishment; a source of harm or ruin

Pyrrhic Victory

a victory that is offset by staggering losses or that comes at a huge price

quixotic

dedicated to unreachable goals; idealistic but not practical

saturnine

gloomy, dark, sullen, morose

Sisyphean

requiring endless effort; without result or success

solecism

a nonstandard or improper use of language

Behold

to gaze at or look upon

discernment

excellent judgement and insight; skill in perceiving

envision

to picture in the mind; to imagine

foresee

to see or know ahead of time

gape

a stare of amazement (usually with the mouth open)

impressionistic

describing a highly personal, individual response to experience

myopia

Lack of planning for the future; shortsightedness

perceptive

marked by understanding or awareness; sharp; sensitive

premonition

a feeling that something will happen in the future; an advance warning

subliminal

below the threshold of conscious thought; not detectable, but able to bring about a response

cessation

a bringing or coming to an end; a halt

commence

to begin

deter

to discourage or prevent from taking action

hamper

to prevent the free movement, action, or progress of

obstruction

something that blocks or gets in the way; an obstacle

preclude

to make impossible or unlikely; to prevent

procrastinate

to delay; to put off

scuttle

to run or move with short, hurried movements; to scurry

subside

to sink to a lower or more normal level; to become less active or intense

thwart

to prevent from taking place; frustrate; block

apologist

a person who speaks in defense of a person, an idea, or a position

dissuade

to discourage from doing something through persuasion

dupe

to take advantage by fooling someone

fallacy

A false belief

imply

to hint; to suggest indirectly

indisputable

beyond doubt or question; certain

infer

To draw a conclusion from evidence

red herring

Something that draws attention away from the main issue

refute

to prove to be false or invalid; to deny the accuracy or truth of

substantiate

to support with proof or evidence; verify

accolade

great praise; an award

adulation

adoration; excessive praise or flattery

anathema

Something or someone that is greatly hated and avoided

commend

to give approval or praise

critique

a detailed review

eulogy

A tribute; spoken or written praise, often given in honor of a person who has died

homage

publicly expressed honor or respect

laudable

Worthy of praise and honor

quibble

To criticize, argue, or raise objections over something unimportant

reproach

to criticize or express disapproval

bland

calming or soothing; not spicy or irritating; lacking flavor

culinary

Of or related to cooking or the kitchen

cutlery

utensils used for eating, such as knives, forks, and spoons

devour

to consume or eat up greedily or enthusiastically

morsel

a very small piece; a small treat

pungent

having a sharp taste or smell

quaff

To drink heartily and deeply

ravenous

extremely hungry

savory

pleasing in taste and smell

simmer

to cook or cook in a liquid at or just below the boiling point.

blight

to have a negative effect on; to ruin

cataclysm

an intense and violent disaster or change

decomposition

the process of rotting, breaking down, or disintegration

eradication

The act of tearing out by the roots

havoc

widespread destruction

mar

To inflict damage or spoil the quality of

obliterate

to wipe out completely

pugnacious

eager and ready to fight

pulverize

to pound, crush, or grind into powder or dust

stagnant

stale and foul because of lack of movement

broach

bring up a topic for discussion

convene

meet formally

debut

first public appearance

embark

To go on board a ship or airplane at the start of a voyage.

generate

to create; to bring into being

incipient

beginning to exist or appear

initiative

a beginning or an introductory step

innovation

something newly introduced or created

novice

a beginner

overture

a piece of music intended to introduce a longer work

devious

meant to trick; shifty

duplicity

deliberate deception

fictitious

False or fake

guile

sly intelligence

gullible

Easily deceived or fooled

hypocritical

giving a false appearance; saying one thing, but doing another

masquerade

v. to wear a disguise; to put on a false appearance

overt

open and observable

reputable

having a good reputation

veracity

truthfulness, accuracy

acme

the highest point of achievement

adept

very skilled

aptitude

natural ability

astute

having good judgement

finesse

to achieve a goal or handle a situation with subtle skill

painstaking

marked by or requiring great care; demanding extended or extreme effort, or diligence

precocious

unusually advanced or talented at an early age

prodigy

a person who shows remarkable talent at an early age; an amazing or extraordinary thing or event

resourceful

effective and imaginative in solving problems; practical

virtuoso

highly skilled artist

idiosyncrasy

an unusual habit of one particular person

innocuous

harmless; unlikely to offend

obstructive

unpleasantly noticeable, bold

orthodox

doing and believing what is commonly accepted.

prevalent

widely or commonly existing or practiced

prosaic

Dull, ordinary

quaint

Charmingly odd, especially in an old-fashioned way

rarity

Something that is very infrequent or scarce

singular

being only one; individual; unique; extraordinary; odd

trite

overused and therefore lacking in interest

appraisal

evaluation of worth

base

Low or inferior in postion

candid

honest frank

criterion

standard judgment

dexterity

skill and grace in physical movement

legitimate

lawful, rightful; reasonable, justifiable

mediocre

Moderate to inferior in quality; ordinary

meritorious

worthy, deserving praise

truism

self-evident truth

validate

to establish or confirm the truth or legality of something

circumlocution

The use of unnecessarily wordy and indirect language

cogent

logical and convincing

discourse

a formal speech or writing

falter

to hesitate or stammer in speech

literate

able to read and write

prattle

To talk foolishly, to chatter

raconteur

a person skilled at telling stories

sophistry

clever arguments that are misleading or incorrect

utterance

something that is said

verbose

using or containing too many words

aficionado

an enthusiastic fan

bravado

false bravery

embargo

a government order preventing trade with another country

flotilla

a small fleet of boats or ships

hacienda

a large estate or ranch; the main house of such a ranch

incommunicado

without a way to communicate

junta

a group of military officers who rule a country after seizing power

peccadillo

a small fault

peon

An unskilled laborer; a farm worker

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