The electrons that exist farthest from an atom's nucleus. They are generally the electrons with the highest energy level number.
What determines an atom's chemistry?
An atom's chemistry is mostly determined by the number of valence electrons it has.
Atoms in the same column...
Atoms in the same column of the periodic chart have the same number of valence electrons and thus have very similar chemistry.
All the atoms in column 8A
Elements that rarely participate in chemical reactions (noble gases)
Most atoms strive to attain eight valence electrons
have the same number of valence electrons as the number of the column they are in
In ionic compounds, nonmetals...
try to gain electrons so that their Lewis structure has 8 dots around it
In ionic compounds, metals...
try to lose electrons until their Lewis structure has no dots around it
An atom that has gained or lost electrons and thus has become electrically charged
Naming positive ions
give them the same name as the atom from which they came
Naming negative ions
Give the name of the atom from which they came an "ide" suffix
If charges have same numerical value
ignore and drop both subscripts
If charges have difference numerical values
drop the + and -, switch the numbers, and use them as subscripts
The process by which an atom turns into an ion by gaining or losing electrons
the amount of energy needed in order to take an electron away from an atom
How does ionization potential work?
In general, the ionization potential of atoms: increases from the left to the right of the periodic chart; decreases from the top to the bottom of the periodic chart
A measure of how strongly an atom attracts extra electrons to itself
How does electronegativity work?
In general, the electronegativity of atoms: increases from the left to the right of the periodic chart; decreases from the top to the bottom of the periodic chart
An indicator of an atoms' size
How does atomic radius work?
In general, the atomic radius: increases from the top to the bottom of the periodic chart; decreases from the left to the right of the periodic chart
A shared pair of valence electrons that holds atoms together in covalent compounds
Separates ionic compounds from covalent
Atoms in covalent compounds share electrons in order to form molecules, while the atoms in ionic compounds give and take electrons to form ions