Why unified Iran?
Warriors, priests, peasants
What were the 3 social classes in ancient Iran?
Taurus, Caucasus, Zagros, Mediterranean
What were geographical factors in Iran?
Isolation from rest of world
The Greek Dark Age was a period of what?
Access to foreign markers, cultural features that emerged, trade connection
Why did Greece prosper through resource poor?
Humanity is in a constant cosmic struggle, world in is battle of good vs. evil, monotheistic, does not believe in reincarnation
What are the tenets of Zoroasterism?
20 provinces each under a satrap
What was the Persian approach to ruling diverse peoples?
Grain, olive trees, grapevines, wheat
What were the primary crops of Greece?
How did Darius use art and sculpture?
Treated as pawns, though they could "have their own pawns," struggle for power
Characterize the Persian women of the elite class.
Connector, not a barrier
How did the Greek view "the sea?"
They were entirely dependent on rainfall
How did the Greeks water their crops?
People still had rights though they were viewed as slaves
How did Darius body of law affect subject peoples?
Exsercise of political privaledge for wealthier members of society
Contact between the Agean Sea and Middle East, Invasion from the north
What began the Greek Archaic period?
Villages merged and became centers
What did the greek population explosion lead to?
Value on uniqueness, talents of the individual
What were the characteristics of humanism?
Values and weights defined by the state, showed wealth
Why were coins significant?
They built oracles and made sacrifices
How did the Greeks communicate with their deities?
Clashes between city-states let to the rise of Greek infantrymen called what?
Learned quickly, could add vowels to use in communication without needing to memorize
Why was the Phoencian alphabet so beneficial to the Greeks?
What was the usual form of worship that the Greeks used for their gods?
Sacrifice of goods or animals
Evelvated place of refuge
Gathering place or open air market
Trade opportunities, increased population, technological achievements
What were the characteristics of the recovery of the Archaic Period?
All free adult males over 21
Who participated in Greek democracy?
Xenophenes: how the world was created and made out of what
Pythagorus: math and philosophy advancements
Thalles: world had been all water at one point
Who were some pre-Socratic Greek philosophers and with what were they concerned?
People who used cleverness to distort of manipulate reality using argument
Who were the sophists?
There was a half-century of chaos, officers scrambled to regain control of three kingdoms
What happened to Alexander's empire after he died?
What was the symbol of Athenian navy success?
According to Democritus, what was the world composed of?
Marry in culture, establish Greek-style cities, leave cooperative officials in place
What policies did Megas Alexandros use to control his empire?
Who was the father of history in the West?
Mesinians made into life-long slaves, no money around, raised men to be obediant slaves from young age
Describe the Spartan city-state.
Athens and Sparta cam out as major powers, Persia never threatens Greeks away
What were the results of the Persian war?
Even Greek state had a nation in and of itself, unified only against a common enemy, Greeks did not view themselves as a nation
How did the Peloponnesian war reveal a flaw in the city-state idea?
Women, kids, slaves
Who was not part of Athenian democracy?
Alexandria in Egypt
What was the greatest Hellenistic city?
Socrates, Plato (diversity of nature, no democracy but philosopher king), Aristotle (wrote about everything, "Poetics"), Epicurus (taught in garden, strict life, greatest pleasure was the epiphany), Xeno (created the Stoic school)
List Greek philosophers and their contributions.
Aristarcus (argued earth was on an axis, sun is the center), Hypocrates (physician), Pythagorus, Archimedes (invented defenses against Romans at Sicily, buoyancy), Hyron of Calcedom (invented the lie detector, anatomy), Euclid (geometry), Aritosthanes (earth was round)
List Greek scientists/inventors/physicians and their contributions.
Sophocles, Euripedes, Aristophanes, Esceles, Sapho, Archilocus
List Greek writers and their works.
Myron (athletes, chariotees), Phideas (Athena and Zeus, giant), Phaxitoles
List Greek sculptors and their works
In search for gold and trade products, Black Sea, Jason, Herculues, Orpheus
What was the purpose of the voyage of the Argo? Who were the participants? When did it take place?