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Olive Branch Petition

peace petition sent to King George by colonial delegates after the battles of Lexington and Concord, declaring their loyalty to the king and asking him to repeal the Intolerable Acts

Green Mountain Boys

Vermont colonial militia led by Ethan Allen, which made a surprise attack on Fort Ticonderoga, giving Americans control of the key route into Canada

Continental Army

army established by the Second Continental Congress to fight the British

Patriot

colonist who favored war against Britian

Loyalist

colonist who remained loyal to Britian

Battle of Bunker Hill

In 1775, first major battle of the Revolution

Blockade

the shutting of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out

Mercenary

soldier who fights merely for pay, often for a foreign country

Battle of Lexington and Concord

What was the first battle of the American Revolution?

Battle of Bunker Hill

What was the first MAJOR battle of the American Revolution?

Ethan Allen

Who was the leader of the Green Mountain Boys?

it had useful supplies they could use for the war

Why did the Green Mountain Boys want to capture Fort Ticonderoga?

George Washington

Who was the first commander of the Continental Army?

Th British

Who won the Battle of Bunker Hill?

Because colonists from different colonies ddn't trust one another

Why was it hard to train the American army?

He set up the cannons that they won from Ticonderoga overlooking the harbor and the British knew they cold not hold Boston

How did Washington force the British to leave Boston?

Common Sense

published in1776, an essay by Thomas Paine that urged the colonies to declare indpendance

Traitor

person who betrays his or her country

Decleration of Independance

a 1776 document stating that the 13 English colonies were a free and independant nation

Preamble

introduction to a decleration, constitution, or other official document

Natural Rights

rights that belong to all people from birth

John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman

Name the 5 people that made up the commitee that would write the decleration of independance.

Thomas Jefferson

Who was the author of the Decleration of Independance?

July 4, 1776

When was the Decleration of Indpendance adopted?

John Hancock

Who was the president of the Continental Congress and the first to sign the Decleration?

Preamble, Natural Rights, British Wrongs, Indpendence

What are the four main parts of the decleration of independence?

they declared their independence

What actions did Congress take to make the final break with Britian?

Battle of Long Island

a 1776 battle in New York in which more than 1400 americans were killed, wounded, or captured

Battle of Trenton

a 1776 battle in New Jersey in which George Washington's troops captureda Hessian encampment in a surprise attack

Battle of Saratoga

in 1777, the first major American victory in the Revolution, which ended the British threat to New England

ally

nation that works with another nation for a common purpose

cavalry

troops on horseback

Valley Forge

Pennsylvania site of Washington's Continental Army encampment during the winter of 1777-1778

Nathan Hale

a young Connecticut officer who crossed British lines to get information about British troop movements

General John Burgoyne

This British General believed that if New England was cut off from the other colonies, the war would soom be over

The British

Who won he Battle for Breed's Hills

The British

Who won the Battle of Long Island?

The Patriots

Who won the Batlle of Trenton?

Battle of Saratoga

What was a major turning point in the war?

The British

Who won Philadelphia?

Valley Forge

Where did the Patriots stop for winter?

Benedict Arnold

Who was the leader of the strong American army that protected Albany from being captured?

Fort Ticonderoga

Instead of winning Albany, what did the British recaptue?

The Patriots

Who won the battle of Bennington?

It ended British threat to New England

Why was Saratoga a major turning point in the war for the Patriots?

France

What country did the Battle of Saratoga persuade to join the war?

France and spain

What two countries joined the war with the Americans?

Marquis de Lafayette

French noble who brought trained soldiers to help the Patriot cause
Marquis de Lafayette
Friedrich von Steuben
Thaddeus Kosciusko
Casimir Pulaski

Friedrich von Steuben

helped train Washington's army to march and drill
Marquis de Lafayette
Friedrich von Steuben
Thaddeus Kosciusko
Casimir Pulaski

Thaddeus Kosciusko

an engineer that helped build forts and other defenses
Marquis de Lafayette
Friedrich von Steuben
Thaddeus Kosciusko
Casimir Plaski

Casimir Pulaski

trained the
Marquis de Lafayette
Friedrich von Steuben
Thaddeus Kosciusko
Casimir Plaski

he led a surprise attack on british troops on Christmas night

How did Washington turn retreat into victory in New Jersey?

women planted and harvested crops, they made shoes and wove cloth for blankets and uniforms, they also toook over the family jobs

How did women's role change when men went to war?

she earned t nickname molly pitcher because she carried pitchers of water to soldiers

Who was Mary Ludwig Hays?

The Patriots

Who won the Battle of Vincennes?

he captured one of Britian's major warships on the sea and it became one of the greatest American sea victories

Why was John Paul Jones a hero to the Americans?

becausee Britian offered them freedom for their services

Why did some slaves escape to the British?

Because they believed all people, black or white, were all equal

Why did African American Patriots hope that the Revolution would end slavery?

It showed that Britian's new plan of capturing the south to win the war was not going to work

Why was the American Victory at Kings Mountain an important victory for Americans?

1778

When did the south become the main battleground of the war?

many loyalists lived there and they hoped they would join them in the war

Why did the British want to move to the south?

because attacks by british troops and loyalist militia became more cruel

Why were more people beginning to side with the Patriots rather than with Britian?

he only engaged the British on ground that put the british at a disadvantage and the british soldiers soon became worn out from chasing Greene's army

How did General Green help "turn the tide" in the south?

The Patriots

Who won the Battle of Cowpens?

He put his soldiers in two lines. The first line fired at the british and then retreated. The British thought they were retreating so they kept moving forward but the second line fired and killed and wounded many of them

How did General Morgan help win the Battle of Cowpens?

they slept by day and traveled by night and used guerrilla attacks

What was Francis Marion's tactic?

he wanted to cut off American's supply routes to the south

Why did General Cornwallis want to capture Virginia?

Thomas Jefferson

Who was the governor of Virginia?

The Patriots

Who won the Battle of Yorktown?

October 19, 1781

When was the war finally over?

1782

When did peace talks begin in Paris?

because the British were eager for it to be over

Why did the Americans get most of what they wanted during the peace talks?

April 15, 1783

date Treaty of Paris was ratified

knowledge of geography, foreign help, fighting skills improved, and Washington

Name 4 reasons the Americans won the war.

American and french troops laid seige to Cronwallis's army

Why was Cornwallis forced to surrender Yorktown?

Battle of Cowpens

a 1781 batttle in South Carolina, where Americans won an important victory over the British

guerrilla

soldier who uses hit-in-run tactics

siege

military blockade or bombardment of an enemy town or position in order to force it to surrender

Battle of Yorktown

final battle in the American revolution; this 1781
American victory in Virginia forced the British to surrender

Treaty of Paris

a 1763 agreement between Briitan and France that ended the French and Indian War, and marked the end of French in North America; peace treaty between the United States and Britian, ratified in 1783, that recognized the United States as an independant nation

ratify

to approve

Battle of Yorktown

What was the battle that ended the war?

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