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waving the bloody shirt

The symbol of the Republican political tactic of attacking Democrats with
reminders ofthe Civil War

Credit Mobilier

Corrupt construction company whose bribes and payoffs to congressmen and
others created a major Grant administration scandal

Liberal Republican Party

Short-lived third party of 1872 that attempted to curb Grant administration
corruption, ·

silver

Precious metal that "soft-money" advocates demanded be coined again to
compensate for the "Crime of '73

Greenback Labor Party

"Soft-money" third party that polled over a million votes and elected fourteen
congressmen in l878 by advocating inflation

Gilded Age

Mark Twain's sarcastic name for the post—Civil War era, which emphasized its
_ atmosphere of greed and corruption

Grand Army of the Republic

Civil War Union veterans' organization that became a potent political bulwark
of the Republican party in the late nineteenth century

Stalwarts

Republican party faction led by Senator Roscoe Conkling that opposed all
attempts at civil-service reform

Half-Breeds

Republican party faction led by Senator James G. Blaine that paid lip service to
govemment reform while still battling for patronage and spoils

Compromise of 1877

The complex political agreement between Republicans and Democrats that -
resolved the bitterly disputed election of 1876

Chinese

Asian immigrant group that experienced discrimination on the West Coast

civil service

System of choosing federal employees on the basis of merit rather than patronage
introduced by the Pendleton Act of 1883

McKinley Tariff

Sky-high Republican tariff of 1890 that caused widespread anger among farmers
in the Midwest and the South

Populists (People's Party

insurgent political party that gained widespread support among farmers in the
1890s

grandfather clause

Notorious clause in southem voting laws that exempted from literacy tests and
poll taxes anyone whose ancestors had voted in 1860, thereby excluding blacks

Land Grants

Federally owned acreage granted to the railroad companies in order to
encourage the building of rail lines

Union Pacific RR

The original transcontinental railroad, commissioned by Congress, which built h
its rail line west from Omaha

Central Pacific RR

The Califomia-based railroad company, headed by Leland Stanford, that
employed Chinese laborers in building lines across the mountains

Great Northern RR

The northemmost ofthe transcontinental railroad lines, organized by
economically wise and public-spirited industrialist James J. Hill

stock watering

Dishonest device by which railroad promoters artificially inflated the price of
their stocks and bonds

Wabash case

Supreme Court case of 1886 that prevented states from regulating railroads or
other forms of interstate commerce

Interstate Commerce Commission

Federal regulatory agency often used by rail companies to stabilize the industry
and prevent ruinous competition

telephone

Late-nineteenth—century invention that revolutionized communication and created
a large new industry that relied heavily on female workers

Standard Oil

First of the great industrial trusts, organized through a principle of "horizontal
integration" that ruthlessly incorporated or destroyed competitors

U.S. Steel

The first billion-dollar American corporation, organized when J. P. Morgan bought out Andrew Camegie

New South

Term that identified southem promoters' belief in a technologically advanced
industrial South

Colored National Labor Union

Black labor organization that briefly flourished in the late l860s

Knights of Labor

Secret, ritualistic labor organization that enrolled many skilled and unskilled
workers but collapsed suddenly after the Haymarket Square bombing

craft unions

Skilled labor organizations, such as those of carpenters and printers, that were
most successful in conducting strikes and raising wages

American Federation of Labor

The conservative labor group that successfully organized a minority of American workers but left others out

dumbbell tenement

High-rise urban buildings that provided barrackslike housing for urban slum dwellers.

New Immigration

Term for the post-1880 newcomers who came to America primarily from southem and eastem Europe

birds of passage

Immigrants who came to America to earn money for a time and then retumed to
their native land

social gospel

The religious doctrines preached by those who believed the churches should directly address economic and social problems

Hull House

Settlement house in the Chicago slums that became a model for women's
involvement in urban social reform

social work

Profession established by Jane Addams and others that opened new
opportunities for women while engaging urban problems

American Protective Assoc.

Nativist organization that attacked "New lmmigrants" and Roman Catholicism
in the 1880s and 1890s

Roman Catholicism

The church that became the largest American religious group, mainly as a result
ofthe "New Immigration"

Tuskegee Institute

Black educational institution founded by Booker T. Washington to provide
training in agriculture and crafts

NAACP

Organization founded by W. E. B. Du Bois and others to advance black social
and economic equality

Progress and Poverty

Henry George's best-selling book that advocated social reform through the imposition of a "single tax" on land

Comstock Law

Federal law promoted by a self-appointed morality crusader and used to prosecute moral and sexual dissidents

Women and Economics

Charlotte Perkins Gilman's book urging women to enter the work force and
advocating cooperative kitchens and child-care centers

NAWSA

Organization formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others to promote the vote
for women

WCTU

Women's organization founded by reformer Frances Willard and others to oppose alcohol consumption

Sioux

Major northem Plains Indian nation that fought and eventually lost a bitter war
against the U.S. Army, 1876—1877

Apaches

Southwestem Indian tribe led by Geronimo that carried out some of the last fighting against white conquest

reservations

Generally poor areas where vanquished Indians were eventually confined under federal control

Ghost Dance

Indian religious movement, originating out of the sacred Sun Dance that the federal govemment attempted to stamp out in I890

Dawes Severalty Act

Federal law that attempted to dissolve tribal landholding and establish Indians
as individual farmers

Comstock Lode

Huge silver and gold deposit that brought wealth and statehood to Nevada

long drive

General term for the herding of cattle from the grassy plains to the railroad
temiinals of Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming

Homestead Act

Federal law that offered generous land opportunities to poorer farmers but also
provided the unscrupulous with opportunities for hoaxes and fraud

barbed wire

Improved type of fencing that enabled farmers to enclose land on the treeless
plains

Oklahoma

Former "Indian Territory" where "sooners" tried to get the jump on "boomers"
when it was opened for settlement in 1889

Populists (people's party)

Third political party that emerged in the l890s to express rural grievances and
mount major attacks on the Democrats and Republicans

Coin's Financial School

Popular pamphlet written by William Hope Harvey that portrayed pro-silver
arguments triumphing over the traditional views of bankers and economics
professors

Pullman Strike

Bitter labor conflict in Chicago that brought federal intervention and the jailing of union leader Eugene V. Debs

Cross of Gold Speech

Spectacular convention speech by a young pro-silver advocate that brought him the Democratic presidential nomination in l896

"goldbugs"

Popular term for those who favored the "status quo" in metal money and opposed
the pro-silver Bryanites in I896

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