A way of pronouncing words that indicates the place of origin or social background of the speaker.
The area where activities take place.
A group of people with a similar age.
The ratio if the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and on longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
Concerned with limiting population growth.
Arithmetic density (population density)
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
The material manifestation of culture, including tools, housing, systems of land use, clothing, and etc.
An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Speaking two languages.
Large-scale emigration by talented people.
British Received Pronunciation (BRP)
The dialect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom.
The part of the physical landscape that represents material culture, including buildings, roads, bridges, and etc.
The science of making maps.
A complete enumeration of a population.
Chain migration (migration ladder)
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that occur on a regular basis.
The spread of something over a given area.
Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
Deliberate prevention of conception or impregnation.
The place where concentration of culture traits that characterizes a region is greatest.
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
Crude birth rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Crude death rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication.
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group. Modification to an environment by humans (including built environments and agricultural systems that reflects aspects of culture.)
The concept that people of different culture will definitely observe and interpret their environment and make different decision about its nature, potentiality and use.
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition.
A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity (may be associated with religious beliefs or business practices.)
A nuclear area within which an advanced and distinctive set of culture traits, ideas, and technologies develops and from which there is diffusion of those characteristics and the cultural landscape features they imply.
A collective of culture regions sharing related culture systems; a major world area having sufficient distinctiveness to be perceived as a set apart from other realms in terms of cultural characteristics and complexes.
A formal or functional region within which common cultural characteristics prevail.
A single, distinguishing feature of regular occurrence within a culture, such as the use of chopsticks of the observance of a particular caste system. A single element of learned behavior.
The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
The scientific study of population characteristics.
The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area.
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.
The amount of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Dialect spoken by some African Americans.
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Migration from a location.
A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
An artificial language invented in 1887, based on the root forms of some words common to the major European languages.
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends.
Folk Culture (Folkways)
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogenous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Reasons certain culture/region eats food.
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics. Uniform or homogeneous region
A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language.
Functional (or nodal) region
An area organized around a node or focal point.
Geographic Information System (GIS)
A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Greenwich Mean Time
The time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0° longitude.
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
A repetitive act performed by a particular individual.
The region from which innovative ideas originate.
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
Migration to a location.
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Infant mortality rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.
Permanent movement within a particular country.
Permanent movement from one country to another.
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
Permanent movement within one region of a country.
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator (0°).
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
the diversity of languages caused by migrations as well as spatial isolation
A language that is written as well as spoken; system of written communication
The position of anything on Earth's surface.
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°).
A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it.
The tangible, physical items produced and used by members of a specific culture group and reflective of their traditions, lifestyles and technologies.
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
The central, enduring elements of a culture expressing its values and beliefs, including language, religion, folklore, and etc.
An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.
All types of movement from one location to another.
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
Only people exhibiting certain characteristics in a population choosing to migrate.
A constant flow of migrants from the same origin to the same destination.
Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
Speaking only one language.
Speaking several languages.
Natural increase rate (NIR/RNI)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.
The uninhabited or uninhabitable area of the world.
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
The study of established correct spelling.
The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area.
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area.
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Population agglomeration (clustering)
A cluster of people living in the same area.
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
Societies with out a written language
The meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
A north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Concerned with promoting population growth.
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
Factors that induce people to move to a new location.
Factors that induce people to leave old residences.
In reference to migration, a law that places maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year.
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.
An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area. Cultural landscape studies.
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
The total fertility rate at which women would have only enough children to replace themselves and their partner.
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.
A square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections.
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
The physical character of a place.
The location of a place relative to other places.
The institutions and links between individuals and groups that unit a culture, including family structure and political, educational and religious institutions.
The physical gap or interval between two places.
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
The set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point in space-time and an ending point in space-time.
Combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic-Americans.
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe.
A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom.
The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.
Total fertility rate (TFR)
The average number of children a women will have throughout her childbearing years.
A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships.
A language used between native speakers of different languages to allow them to communicate so that they can trade with each other.
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
People who enter a country without proper documents.
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
How popular culture's landscape look the same.
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
Vernacular (or perceptual) region
An area that people believe to exist as part of their cultural identity.
The everyday language of the people in a country or region, as distinct from official or formal language.
The different names by which a geographical place is known, depending on your dialect. (i.e. Chicago is known as Chi-town)
Permanent movement undertaken by choice.
A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romand, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents.
Zero population growth (ZPG)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.