The document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers. It can be changed through amendments.
right or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments and subsequent acts of Congress including the right to legal and social and economic equality
Theses are protected by the Bill of Rights and include economic rights related to property, political rights related to freedom of speech and press, and personal rights related to bearing arms and maintaining private residences.
Mendez v. Westminster School District .
declared the segregation of Mexicans in American schools to be unconstitutional
Delgado v Bastop Independent School District
declared the segregation of Mexicans was unconstitutional, however the court did allow separate classes on the same campus, in the first grade only, for language-deficient or non-English-speaking students as identified by scientific and standardized tests applied to all.
Equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
Warren Court Decisions
the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism
Mapp v. Ohio
a landmark case in the area of U.S. criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment protection against "unreasonable searches and seizures" may not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts.
Gideon v. Wainwright
a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
Escobedo v. Illinois
Decision that requires an accused person be permitted to have an attorney present during interrogation. Court stated that when "the process shifts from investigatory to accusatory," the Court stated, "when its focus is on the accused and its purpose is to elicit a confession, our adversary system begins to operate, and under the circumstances here, the accused must be permitted to consult a lawyer."
Miranda v. Arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
Baker v. Carr
case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up Congressional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
Roe v. Wade
established national abortion guidelines; trimester guidelines; no state interference in 1st; state may regulate to protect health of mother in 2nd; state may regulate to protect health or unborn child in 3rd. inferred from right of privacy established in Griswold v. Connecticut
Indian Citizenship Act
Law that gave Native Americans the legal and voting rights of U.S. citizens.
Indian Reorganization Act
Government legislation that allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U.S. government. It provided the Indians direct ownership of their land, credit, a constitution, and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs.
Federal government decision to end federal responsibility for Native American tribes
American Indian Movement
led by Dennis Banks and Russell Means; purpose was to obtain equal rights for Native Americans; protested at the site of the Wounded Knee massacre
Indian Civil Rights Act
Guaranteed Indians the rights granted to other citizens in the Bill of Rights while at the same time recognizing the legitimacy of tribal laws.
Alcatraz Island Occupation
The land was claimed by Native Americans for American Indian Studies but was formally taken by the U.S. government as federal land
Second Wounded Knee
The Wounded Knee incident began February 27, 1973 when the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota was seized by followers of the American Indian Movement (AIM). The occupiers controlled the town for 71 days while the United States Marshals Service and other law enforcement agencies cordoned off the town.
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act
1975 Tribes administer own federal programs
Education Amendments Act
Act that outlawed sexual discrimination in higher education.
Education for All Handicapped Children Act
Federal law requiring public schools to provide education for children with physical and mental disabilities.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
The Act is an extensive statute which funds primary and secondary education. This allowed the government to help those who cannot achieve a good education.
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
Made it a crime to criticize the government or government officials. Opponents claimed that it violated citizens' rights to freedom of speech and freedom of the press, guaranteed by the First Amendment.