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functions of bones

support, protection, movement, mineral storage, blood cell formation (hematopoiesis)

long bones

Ex. femur, humerus

short bones

Ex. wrist, ankle

Flat bones

Ex. skull

Irregular bones

Ex. Vertebra

compact bone

the external layer of bones

spongy bone

the internal layer of bones

diaphysis

long shaft of the bone

medullary cavity

inside the diaphysis which houses the bone marrow

episysis

ends of the bone

periosteum

outer most covering, makes the bone shiny

endosteum

lines the medullary cavity

yellow marrow

In adults, the medullary cavity contains fat, AKA _______.

Red marrow

As infants, all marrow is ______.

Red blood cells

In adults, yellow marrow can revert to red marrow if a person needs _____.

osteoblasts

bone forming cells

osteoclasts

bone-destroying cells

osteocytes

mature bone cells

periosteum and endosteum

the osteoblasts & osteoclasts are found in the _______ and ______.

osteons

circular structures

simple

Bone fracture that doesn't penetrate the skin, bone is broken into 2 pieces

compound

Bone fracture that DOES penetrate the skin, usually bone becomes infected and requires heavy antibiotics

comminuted

Bone fracture in which bone fragments into many pieces (usually happens in brittle bones)

depressed

Bone fracture in which broken bone portion is pressed inwards (skull)

impacted

Bone fracture in which broken ends are forded into each other (shoulder, hip)

spiral

Bone fracture in which twisting force applied to bone (common sports injury)

greenstick

Bone fracture that is an incomplete break (common in children)

8-12 weeks

Normally, healing of fractures takes ____. (longer in elderly)

Fracture Hematoma

1st stage of fracture healing - broken vessels form a blood clot

Granulation Tissue

2nd stage of fracture healing - fibrous tissue formed by fibroblasts and infiltrated by capillaries

Callus formation

3rd stage of fracture healing - soft callus of fibrocartilage replaced by hand callus of bine in 6 weeks

Remodeling

4th stage of fracture healing - occurs over next 6 month as spongy bone is replaced w/ compact bone

7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae

the spine includes ______, ______, _______

7 true, 5 false, 2 floating, 12 total on each side

the ribs include ____, ____, ____, _______

osteoporosis

depletion of the bone, commonly found in elderly, bone becomes more porous & less compact

rickets

due to a deficiency of calcium or vitamin D, usually found in children, most visible sign is bowed legs

scoliosis

lateral curvature of the spine, commonly found in young girls, unknown cause, can be treated w/ surgery or various braces

kyphosis

hunchback, curvature of spine in bent over position, commonly found in women w/ OSTEOPOROSIS

lordosis

swayback, curvature of the spine where the hips protrude forward, commonly found in pregnant women / men with potbellies, can be permanent/temporary

arthritis

many types, usually involves degeneration of bone, 5° of severity (each indicating 20 yrs), can be crippled & very painful

osteoarthritis

most common of all types (50% of all cases), degenerative joint disease, sometimes due to aging or from cartilage destruction, treated w/ drugs (Vioxx & Celebrex)

rheumatoid arthritis

common in men/women 40-50, joing stiffness & tenderness, occurs bilaterally, synovial joint swelling

arthrology

the study of joints

kinesesiology

the study of musculoskeletal movement

diarthrosis

freely movable joints

amphiarthrosis

slightly movable joints

synarthrosis

little or no movement of joints

fibrous

bone ends/parts are united by collagen fibers

cartilaginous

bone ends are united by cartilage

synovial

bone ends are covered w/ articular cartilage, and lined w/ synovial fluid

suture

[Fibrous joints]
between the bones in the skull (immobile)

gomphosis

[Fibrous joints]
teeth (immobile)

syndesmosis

[Fibrous joints]
between radius/ulna, connected by tendon or ligament and CT (slightly mobile)

synchondroses

[Cartilaginous joints]
connect ribs to sternum (immobile)

symphysis

[Cartilaginous joints]
vertebrae (slightly mobile)

plane

[Synovial joints]
between carpals & tarsals (gliding movements)

hinge

[Synovial joints]
knee, elbow, humerus, ulna

pivot joints

[Synovial joints]
first bone rotated on its longitudinal axis relative to the other (raius, ulna)

condyloid

[Synovial joints]
knuckles, hands, fingers

ball and socket

[Synovial joints]
shoulder, hip

saddle

[Synovial joints]
thumb

dislocation

bones are forced out of their normal positions at a joint

bursitis

inflammation of bursasac (usually from falling directly on elbow/knee)

tendonitis

inflammation of tendon sheath, usually caused by overuse

achondroplastic dwarfism

short stature, but normal sized head & trunk
(long bones of limbs stop growing in childhood but other bones unaffected)
result of spontaneous mutation

pituitary dwarfism

has lack of growth hormone
(short stature w/ normal proportions)

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