Kendall's Bio Unit 2

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Metabolism

All of the life processes taking place in an organism

Anabolism

Building up

Catabolism

Breaking Down

Nutrition

Get materials from enviroment to modify and use for energy, growth, repair, and maintenence. The two types are Autotrophic(plants) and Heterotrophic(animals)

Transport

Movement of materials within an organism or its cells

Respiration

Release of energy from food
Anaerobic: Without Oxygen
Aerobic: With Oxygen

Excretion

Removal of cellular wastes (ex: carbon dioxide and water)

Regulation

Maintenance of Homeostasis

Synthesis

Produce complex substances from simple substances (ex: photosynthesis = carbon dioxide and water ----> glucose and oxygen)

Growth

Increase in size
Replication and growth of cells

Locomotion

Ability to move from place to place
Not necessary to be considered living but increases probability of survival

Reproduction

Organism makes new individual(s)
Asexual- Single Parent, Offspring are clones of Parent
Sexual- Two Parents, offspring are unique
Not Necessary to be considered living but increases probability for the survival and continuation of a group or species.

Cell Theory

1. All living things are made of cells
2. Cells are the basic units of all stucture and function of living things
3. All cells come from preexisting cells

Exception to the Cell Theory

Viruses:
-Have Genetic Material
-Not made up of cells
-Reproduce inside another cell (host cell)

Prokaryotes

Pro= No
No Nucleus

Eukaryotes

Have a nucleus
Have Organelles
(All Plants and Animals)

Cell Membrane

Semi permeable membrane surrounding all cells that controls what goes into and out of the cell (Phospholipid bilayer)

Nucleus

Controls cell activities, contains chromosomes and nucleolus

Nuclear Membrane

surrounds nucleus, controls what goes into and out of the nucleus

Nucleolus

Makes ribosomes

Mitochondria

Provides cell with energy
Where respiration takes place

Golgi Bodies

Make, package, and secrete cell products

Endoplasmic Reticulum

The transport system throughout the cell
Rough- has ribosomes
Smooth- No ribosomes

Ribosomes

Protein synthesis
Free in cytoplasm and attached to Rough ER

Chloroplast

Contain Chlorophyll
site of photosynthesis
Only in Plant cells

Lysosomes

Contain Digestive Enzymes
Only in Animal cells

Centrioles

Used during cell division
Only in Animal Cells

Vacuole

Stores food and waste
Bigger in plant cells

Cytoplasm

Watery fluid inside cell that holds organelles and is the site of chemical reactions

Cell Wall

Surrounds ONLY PLANT CELL
Cellulose wall of protection

Cell Plate

Divides the cell during cell division
Forms new cell wall
PLANT CELL ONLY

Phospholipids

Hydrophilic head
Hydrophobic tail
Cells have watery internal and external enviroments
Keeps hydroPHOBIC tail away from water

Facilitated Diffusion

Uses a protein

Hypotonic Solution

Water will diffuse into the cell and the cell will expand
ex: Distilled water because there are no minerals and it is pure water
Lower solute concentration than cell

Hypertonic Solution

Water diffuses out of the cell, so the cell will shrink/shrivel.
Ex: Salt water
Higher solute concentration than cell

Isotonic Solution

Water diffuses into and out of the cell at an equal rate

Through all types of solutions, the cell wall ___________

allows materials in and out

Endocytosis

Pinocytosis- liquids and solutes
Phagocytosis- Solid Particles

Exocytosis

removes materials out of the cell

Levels of Organization

Cells, Tissue, Organs, Organ Systems, Organism

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