goods that, when consumed by one individual, cannot be consumed by another
economics goods that are consumed collectively, such as highways and national defense
the unintended side effect of an action that affects someone not involved in the action
when the market creates a sole provider for a good or service
legislation to prevent new monopolies from forming and police those that already exist
a combination of two or more companies to form a single business
a market situation in which the costs of production are minimized by having a single firm produce the product
situation in which a company pulls a product off the market or agrees to change it to make it safe
GDP after adjustments for inflation
alternating periods of growth and decline that the economy goes through
civilian labor force
all civilians 16 years old or older who are either working or are looking for work
the percentage of people in the civilian labor force who are not working but are looking for jobs
the federal governments use of spending and taxation policies to affect overall business activity
sustained increase in the general level of prices
consumer price index (CPI)
measure of change in price over time of specific group of goods and services
government coupons that can be used to purchase food
Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program
a program that provides help for nutrition and health care to low-income women, infants, and children up to age 5
programs that require welfare recipients to exchange some of their labor in return for benefits
progressive income tax
a tax that takes a larger percentage of higher incomes than lower incomes
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)
a program that gives tax credits and even cash payments to qualified workers
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